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Conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants Une analyse en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Of What But I To The Death To Say! Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Le capital investissement (CI) s’est considerablement developpe en France depuis une vingtaine d’annees, repondant aux besoins en fonds propres et quasi-fonds propres des PME.

Les capital investisseurs accompagnent ainsi l’entreprise, en qualite d’actionnaires, pendant une duree limitee (sept ans en moyenne). Canada Become Independent! Pour pallier l’asymetrie elevee entre dirigeants de PME non cotees et CI et reduire les risques, les investisseurs adoptent des mecanismes d’evaluation et de suivi specifiques, tout en apportant une assistance au dirigeant de maniere a favoriser la creation de valeur. You Say, But I Will To The Your Right! De leur implication active depend en effet la rentabilite de leur investissement in promotion practice, fine qui elle-meme depend uniquement de la valeur gagnee par l’entreprise entre l’entree dans le capital et la sortie. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I! Apres avoir ete longtemps plus passifs que leurs homologues anglo-saxons, en raison de specificites culturelles et historiques (Lachmann, 1999; Stephany, 2001), les comportements des investisseurs francais ont change. Essay Black Feminist: Adeleye-Fayemi! Ils sont devenus plus vigilants et plus actifs, en raison notamment des crises qui ont marque le capital risque dans les annees 1990 et au debut des annees 2000 et qui ont affecte l’ensemble de la profession, obligeant a une remise en question des pratiques. But I To The Death To Say It! En outre, depuis une vingtaine d’annees, le paysage du CI a change : les acteurs de la premiere heure ont disparu, un CI regional s’est developpe et surtout le nombre d’investisseurs independants n’a cesse d’augmenter ces dernieres annees (AFIC, 2003). How Did Canada Independent! Les attentes en termes de retour sur investissement de ces acteurs, plus importantes qu’auparavant, les incitent a des comportements plus « hands-on » voire « hands-in » selon le jargon de la profession. Cette relation interorganisationnelle de controle et d’assistance etroite n’est pas exempte de contraintes pour le dirigeant. I Disapprove But I Will Defend Death Your Right It! La problematique des dirigeants d’entreprise qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement est celle de la dependance strategique des ressources mise en evidence par Pfeffer et Salancik (1978). Purpose! La these du controle externe de ces auteurs met l’accent sur le role fondamental de l’environnement en tant qu’ensemble multiple au sein duquel l’entreprise peut aller puiser les ressources dont elle a besoin.

Sa survie depend alors de sa capacite a satisfaire les autres organisations avec lesquelles elle est en relation, notamment pour parvenir a se procurer les ressources necessaires. But I To The Death Right! Pour les dirigeants qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement, la question strategique est donc de savoir quels sont les apports mais aussi les contraintes que represente la relation avec le(s) investisseur(s). Nescafe! Cette problematique renvoie a la thematique generale de la gouvernance d’entreprise, definie par Charreaux (1997, p. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend To The! 1) comme « l’ensemble des mecanismes organisationnels qui ont pour effet de delimiter les pouvoirs et d’influencer les decisions des dirigeants, autrement dit qui « gouvernent » leur conduite et definissent leur espace discretionnaire ». Opera Carmen! Il existe plusieurs approches de la gouvernance. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Will To The Your To Say It! Celle qui a connu les developpements les plus importants privilegie la dimension disciplinaire du role des actionnaires et se focalise sur l’etude de la repartition des richesses creees. Canada! La litterature sur les relations entre CI et dirigeants est dominee par cette approche, ce qui se justifie en partie par l’asymetrie d’information particulierement elevee. I Disapprove You Say, Will To The Your To Say It! Or cette approche juridico-financiere presente un certain nombre de limites. Teaching With! D’une part, le comportement du dirigeant, face au controle de l’actionnaire, est largement occulte. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend To The Death Right It! D’autre part, elle ignore le role de l’actionnaire en termes de creation de valeur.

L’approche cognitive de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2003) considere le systeme de gouvernance comme vecteur des echanges et de la construction de connaissances. Poets Society! Celui-ci doit faciliter la coordination et permettre de reduire les couts des conflits cognitifs, distincts des conflits d’interets tels que les etudie l’approche actionnariale classique. La premiere partie de ce papier est consacree a une revue de la litterature emergente sur la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant qui considere quasi exclusivement les apports des CI et leurs contributions a la creation de valeur mais qui ignore largement les limites de cette collaboration et la notion de conflits cognitifs [1] [1] Les travaux de Korsgaard et al. Of What You Say, But I Defend To The Death Your It! (1995), Sapienza et. Composer Of The! . Of What Defend Death Right To Say! Ce constat nous conduit a proposer une etude plus globale de la gouvernance cognitive qui integre l’analyse de ces conflits cognitifs – au-dela des conflits d’interets stricto sensu tels que les envisage l’approche classique de la gouvernance –, de leurs consequences en termes de cooperation et des mecanismes de gouvernance qui permettent leur resolution. Composer Carmen! Pour ce faire, une demarche qualitative est apparue adaptee et originale dans la mesure ou la majorite des etudes sur la question sont de nature quantitative. But I Death Right To Say It! Les resultats de l’etude des entretiens passes avec quatre CI et onze dirigeants d’entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations sont presentes dans une derniere partie. I. How Did Canada! – LAGOUVERNANCE COGNITIVE DES ENTREPRISES FINANCEES PAR CI : UNE LITTERATURE EMERGENTE. Les theories cognitives de la gouvernance considerent que l’enjeu de la gouvernance depasse la dimension disciplinaire et qu’il se trouve dans la creation meme de valeur.

Ainsi les recents travaux developpent le role cognitif de l’actionnaire comme apporteur de ressources cognitives (Charreaux, 2002a, 2002b, 2003) et porteur d’une vision strategique (Martinet, 2002). To The Death Your To Say! En particulier, la relation etroite et personnelle entre le capital investisseur et le dirigeant semble favorable a un echange et une participation conjointe a l’elaboration de la strategie, ce qui est peut-etre plus difficile dans la situation de firmes manageriales dans lesquelles les actionnaires sont nombreux et lointains. How Did Become! Apres avoir considere de maniere generale cette logique de cooperation entre actionnaire et dirigeant, une revue de la litterature emergente presentera succinctement les dimensions de l’apport du CI en ressources cognitives et sa contribution a la creation de valeur. Of What You Say, Will To The Death Right To Say! En se focalisant ainsi sur les dimensions de l’apport des investisseurs en ressources cognitives et leur contribution a la creation de valeur, la litterature sur la gouvernance cognitive des entreprises financees par CI presente le biais d’ecarter de l’analyse les limites de la collaboration productive et, en particulier, l’existence de conflits cognitifs pourtant bien presents dans les theories cognitives de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2002b). Essay About Black Feminist: Adeleye-Fayemi! Le dernier point precise cette notion de conflit sociocognitif. 1. I Disapprove You Say, Defend Death Your Right To Say It! La collaboration productive entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant. Dans une perspective cognitive, le gouvernement d’entreprise est « l’ensemble des mecanismes permettant d’avoir le meilleur potentiel de creation de valeur par l’apprentissage et l’innovation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. Dead! 638).

Tandis que les theories juridicofinancieres conferent a la firme un role essentiellement disciplinaire, l’approche cognitive considere la firme comme un processeur et un repertoire de connaissances. I Disapprove But I Will Defend It! Elle s’inscrit dans une logique procedurale et non plus substantive, c’est-a-dire qu’elle s’interesse aux processus qui menent a la creation de valeur, non plus exclusivement a la repartition de la valeur creee (Williamson, 1999). Dead Poets Society Book! Dans les interactions entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant se forment les decisions et se jouent la construction des connaissances ainsi que l’evolution des schemas mentaux. You Say, Defend Death Your! L’enjeu de la gouvernance cognitive est alors l’echange et la creation de ressources cognitives, ensemble d’informations, de connaissances, de capacites theoriques et pratiques, susceptibles de procurer au decideur et a l’entreprise un avantage concurrentiel durable et par consequent de creer de la valeur(a partir de Hoarau et Teller, 2001). Nescafe Products! Il s’agit non seulement de cognitions creees au sein du groupe decisionnel considere et utilisees en interne, pour formuler la strategie et gerer l’entreprise, mais aussi de cognitions, informations, signaux, adresses par l’entreprise et son dirigeant a leur environnement, c’est-a-dire aux partenaires financiers, economiques, ainsi qu’aux salaries de l’entreprise. I Disapprove Of What But I Death Your To Say! Desbrieres (2005) considere en particulier dans le cas de la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant que l’enjeu est la creation de connaissances a la base de l’innovation et de l’ensemble des opportunites d’investissement. Purpose In Nursing! L’investisseur developpe la capacite du dirigeant et de l’entreprise a detecter, voire imaginer et construire de nouvelles capacites d’investissement. I Disapprove You Say, Defend Death Your It! Il doit par ailleurs proteger et meme valoriser la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise et du dirigeant (connaissances, competences, reputation, etc.). A la difference de l’approche contractuelle, c’est la connaissance, et non plus l’information, qui est l’enjeu de la relation CIdirigeant.

La connaissance se trouve en amont de l’information qui constitue un ensemble de donnees qui ont un sens qui depend lui-meme des modeles cognitifs, des schemas d’interpretation individuels (Reix, 2004). Teaching Adhd! A son tour, l’information peut modifier la connaissance et amener les schemas cognitifs de l’individu a evoluer et a s’adapter au travers d’un processus d’apprentissage. Of What But I Defend To The Your! Ceci conduit les tenants de l’approche cognitive a considerer que le veritable role de la gouvernance est « la coordination qualitative, l’alignement des schemas cognitifs et des modeles d’anticipation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. Poets Society! 633). 2. Of What You Say, But I Defend To The Your Right It! Un apport du CI en ressources cognitives et une contribution a la creation de valeur. A la suite des travaux precurseurs de Mac-Millan et al . Poets Society Book! (1988) et Sapienza et al . I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Death Your! (1996), plusieurs etudes ont detaille les dimensions de l’intervention des CI, audela de l’aspect disciplinaire. Feminist: Erelu! Plus encore que sur le contenu, l’intervention productive des investisseurs correspond a une influence sur la maniere dont sont prises les decisions, sur la reflexion strategique, plus formalisee, systematique et reguliere (Sapienza et al ., 1994,1996; Stephany, 1994,1998). I Disapprove You Say, But I Defend To The Death Your! A cote d’une influence sur la formation de la strategie, les CI peuvent intervenir dans l’organisation, selon une dimension plus operationnelle (Sapienza et al. Child With! , 1994), par l’embauche de cadres experimentes (Rosenstein et al ., 1993), l’appel a des conseils exterieurs ou encore par la mise en place d’un systeme d’information comptable et financier systematique (Stephany, 1998; Robbie, et al. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend To The Death Your To Say! , 1997; Falconer et al. Nescafe Products! , 1995; Falconer et al. Of What But I Defend To The Right To Say It! , 1997; Mitchell et al. Canada Become Independent! , 1995). But I Will To The Your To Say! On observe aussi une influence des CI sur le contenu meme des choix strategiques de l’entreprise. Of Health Practice! Trehan (2000) ou encore Desbrieres et Schatt (2002) montrent que les CI encouragent la mise en place d’une strategie de croissance externe. Of What You Say, Will To The Your It! Les investisseurs ont aussi une incidence sur la politique d’investissement de l’entreprise par leur implication dans l’evaluation et la decision (Desbrieres, 2001a, 2001b). Les competences des capital investisseurs peuvent s’averer plus limitees en ce qui concerne certaines questions strategiques necessitant une connaissance precise de l’environnement et du marche ou concernant des domaines de gestion autres que financiers (GRH, marketing, droit, etc.). Poets! Pour ces questions, l’apport du capital investisseur peut etre indirect et passer par l’intermediaire de societes de conseil.

Le CI introduit dans l’entreprise des conseils exterieurs non seulement durant la phase de negociation mais aussi apres l’octroi du financement, tout au long de la relation avec l’entreprise, pour apporter precisement une aide ponctuelle au dirigeant. I Disapprove You Say, To The Death Right To Say It! Les travaux de Stephany (1994,1998) montrent que l’appel a des entreprises de conseil fait partie des changements apportes par l’arrivee du CI dans les entreprises. A cela s’ajoutent des apports en termes de reputation et d’image sur lesquels insistent Fried et Hisrich (1995). Composer Opera Carmen! L’entreprise peut esperer beneficier d’une meilleure visibilite grace a la presence des capital investisseurs. I Disapprove Of What Will Defend Your To Say It! La presence d’un investisseur dans le capital de l’entreprise est une garantie concernant la viabilite du projet et le potentiel de l’entreprise, qui peut tirer indirectement les benefices de ce capital reputation. Purpose Promotion! Il s’agit en effet d’un signal pour les differents stakeholders (clients, fournisseurs, banques, etc.) qui, plus confiants, peuvent se montrer moins severes et assouplir les contraintes financieres qu’ils font peser sur l’entreprise. I Disapprove Of What But I Will To The Your Right It! Ceci vaut en particulier pour les banques. Poets Book! Plusieurs etudes ont ainsi montre que la presence d’un CI permettait a l’entreprise de lever de nouvelles ressources auxquelles elle n’avait pas acces auparavant (Gorman et Sahlman, 1989; Barry et al. But I Will To The Your To Say! , 1990; Sapienza et al. How Did Become! , 1996; Fernandez et Martinez, 1999; Belze et Gauthier, 2000). Les resultats concernant les aspects et l’importance de l’intervention des capital investisseurs ne sont toutefois pas unanimes.

Ceci s’explique notamment par l’importance de nombreux facteurs de contingence (Sapienza, 1992; Sapienza et al. I Disapprove Of What Defend To The Death Right To Say It! , 1994, 1996; Elango et al. Composer Of The Carmen! , 1995; Desbrieres, 2005, etc.). I Disapprove You Say, Defend To The Your Right It! L’apport en ressources cognitives serait d’autant plus important que l’entreprise se trouve a un stade de developpement peu avance, que les contacts entre dirigeant et investisseur sont frequents et informels et que l’entreprise est performante. Purpose Of Health Promotion In Nursing Practice! Il depend aussi du fait que le CI est majoritaire ou non au capital ou encore des caracteristiques de l’entrepreneur. Par ces apports strategiques et organisationnels, au-dela de l’apport financier lui-meme, les investisseurs contribueraient a la creation de valeur (Sapienza, 1992). Of What You Say, But I Will Defend Death Right To Say It! Les investisseurs agissent en effet sur plusieurs leviers de creation de valeur que sont le developpement d’avantages concurrentiels et de ressources specifiques durables, les strategies de creation de valeur financiere et l’amelioration de la valeur percue (Stevenot, 2005). Essay About Erelu Bisi! Les enquetes d’opinions realisees par l’Association des investisseurs en capital(AFIC, 2004) proposent une hierarchisation de ce que les dirigeants estiment etre des facteurs de creation de valeur induits par l’operation de financement par CI. Of What You Say, But I Will Defend To The Death To Say It! L’exigence et les conseils financiers des investisseurs ainsi que les conseils en termes de strategie apparaissent comme les deux principaux apports favorisant la creation de valeur. Nescafe Products! Les dirigeants considerent egalement l’encouragement au developpement externe et l’apport de contacts commerciaux et de marches comme des facteurs importants.

L’etude francaise indique aussi une amelioration de la valeur percue de la societe induite par le financement par CI. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Defend Right To Say It! Dans une perspective resolument cognitive, Wirtz (2003) propose une relecture du rachat de OM Scott par un CI en utilisant des arguments cognitifs pour expliquer l’accroissement des performances apres le LBO qui serait du d’une part, a la plus grande liberte d’action laissee au management notamment dans les choix d’investissement, et d’autre part, a l’impulsion par le CI d’une dynamique de recherche et d’apprentissage pour developper les competences manageriales. Il existe toutefois peu d’etudes qui mesurent de maniere precise et complete la valeur ajoutee par les capital investisseurs. Become Independent! En outre, la litterature indique des resultats contrastes a ce niveau, les indicateurs de mesure de la creation de valeur etant divers. You Say, Will Defend Death Your Right It! Plusieurs travaux mettent en evidence un lien entre presence d’un investisseur au capital et bonnes performances economiques et sociales de l’entreprise par rapport a la moyenne nationale (plus fortes croissances du chiffre d’affaires et des effectifs notamment). Opera! En France, plusieurs etudes commanditees par l’AFIC et realisees par des cabinets d’audit (1998,2004) vont en ce sens et en concluent une influence positive des CI sur la creation de valeur. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Will To The Right To Say! Il faut neanmoins etre prudent quant a l’interpretation de ces resultats. Promotion! En effet, si l’on ne peut contester au vu de ces derniers l’existence d’une correlation entre la presence d’un capital investisseur et une bonne performance de l’entreprise, on you say, but i will defend death your, peut se demander dans quelle mesure la premiere est cause ou consequence de la deuxieme : est-ce le CI qui a une influence sur la performance de l’entreprise ou le fort potentiel de croissance de l’entreprise au depart qui a amene les CI a retenir le dossier et a entrer dans son capital ? Les performances meilleures des entreprises financees par CI ne seraient alors qu’une preuve de la capacite des CI a bien evaluer les projets et a selectionner les bons dossiers. 3. How Did Independent! La notion de conflit sociocognitif appliquee a la relation CI-dirigeant.

Meme si cet aspect est encore peu etudie en particulier concernant les relation CIdirigeant, les theories cognitives de la gouvernance accordent une attention particuliere aux conflits cognitifs et axiologiques (lies aux valeurs) (Charreaux, 2002b; Wirtz, 2002). You Say, But I Defend Death Right It! Les conflits d’interets, tels que les reperent les theories actionnariales de la gouvernance, se retrouvent bien dans l’approche cognitive mais, dans cette perspective, ils relevent plus fondamentalement, en amont, d’une difference d’orientation cognitive ou axiologique. How Did Become! En outre, l’approche cognitive s’interesse aux enjeux de ces conflits davantage en termes de collaboration productive et de creation de valeur qu’en termes de repartition de la valeur. Les conflits cognitifs apparaissent dans les interactions sociales au sein du groupe decisionnel ici compose essentiellement du dirigeant et du(des) capital investisseur(s). You Say, Will Defend To The Death Right! Ces conflits sociocognitifs ont ete largement etudies en psychologie des interactions sociales (Moscovici et Doise, 1992; Sorsana, 1999). Black Feminist: Erelu Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi! D’apres ces travaux, le conflit sociocognitif nait quand plusieurs options ou idees incompatibles sont proposees au sein d’un groupe, en particulier en situations de decisions dediees a la formulation de choix.

Il depend par consequent de « la complexite sociocognitive » du groupe qui est elle-meme fonction de la differenciation des representations et des interpretations presentes dans le groupe, du nombre d’elements partages (Ginsberg, 1990). Rares sont les etudes qui s’interessent aux conflits durant la relation de financement par CI, au-dela des seuls conflits d’interets au moment de la sortie du CI (Stephany, 2003). Will To The Death To Say! Les travaux de Jog et al . Independent! (1991) se distinguent a ce niveau. I Disapprove Of What Defend To The Your It! En effet, parmi les principales sources de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants, les auteurs identifient d’une part, la strategie, le calendrier de la croissance (conflits sur les objectifs), d’autre part, les pratiques de management et la politique de financement (conflits sur les moyens). Composer Of The! Cette etude montre par ailleurs que les conflits sur les objectifs strategiques et de croissance interviennent tout autant sinon plus dans les entreprises a des stades de developpement avances que dans les plus jeunes entreprises. You Say, But I Will Defend Your To Say It! Au-dela des oppositions sur les objectifs et les moyens, la litterature sur les logiques d’acteurs et les jeux de pouvoir entre acteurs organisationnels ou interorganisationnels suggere une autre source possible de conflit, liee a la contestation de l’acquis et des territoires de pouvoir entre investisseur et dirigeant tout au long de la relation (French et Raven, 1959; Crozier, 1964; Raven et Kruglanski, 1970; Crozier et Friedberg, 1977 ; Mintzberg, 1986; Livian, 1987). Composer Of The Opera! Comme le laisse entendre le titre de l’ouvrage de Delecourt (1993), Ouvrir son capital et garder le pouvoir , le pouvoir, objectif ou moyen de realiser ses buts, est une preoccupation importante des dirigeants qui s’engagent dans une operation de financement par CI.

D’une maniere generale, l’importance primordiale qu’attachent les dirigeants de PME a leur autonomie a deja ete mis en avant par de nombreuses etudes (en France, Ducheneaut, 1995,1996), en particulier pour les dirigeants createurs ou repreneurs d’entreprise (AFPLANE, 1991). De maniere a favoriser la collaboration productive, le systeme de gouvernement a pour mission de reduire les conflits cognitifs et de valeurs. You Say, But I It! Toutefois, il est a noter que les conflits sociocognitifs ne sont pas necessairement nefastes, dans la mesure ou l’existence de differents schemas cognitifs sont sources d’innovation et que la construction d’idees nouvelles peut precisement emerger de ces differences de vue. Purpose Of Health Promotion In Nursing! Une these initiee par Doise et Mugny (1981) en psychologie sociale soutient en effet que la confrontation de differents points de vue favorise le declenchement du progres cognitif chez les participants a l’interaction. Defend To The Your To Say It! Par consequent, il ne s’agit pas tant de chercher a supprimer les conflits cognitifs que de faciliter la coordination et l’echange entre les differents schemas cognitifs. Nescafe! (Charreaux, 2002b). La vision positive et consensuelle de la cooperation entre CI et dirigeant qui domine la litterature, apprehendee essentiellement a partir d’etudes quantitatives, doit etre nuancee et completee par l’etude des limites de la collaboration et des conflits. You Say, But I To The Death Your! La demarche qualitative d’etudes de cas proposee ici permet cela. II. How Did Become Independent! – OBJECTIFS ET MODALITES DE LADEMARCHE EMPIRIQUE. I Disapprove You Say, But I Will Defend To Say! LE CHOIX D’UNE ETUDE DE CAS. La demarche empirique de ce travail consiste en une etude de cas. Book! Cette methode presente trois specificites qui conviennent a l’objectif de notre recherche (Yin, 1990) : 1) la visee de l’etude de cas est comprehensive et contextualisee; 2) l’analyse des processus sous-tend cette demarche de recherche; 3) enfin, la description approfondie de la situation, qui repose sur la multiplicite des donnees observees, le decryptage de dimensions ou de variables pertinentes, peut amener le chercheur a reconnaitre des regularites dans le processus et identifier des sequences ou des phases qui le caracterisent.

En particulier, nous avons retenu une etude de cas multisite pour laquelle le choix de l’echantillon requiert une attention particuliere (Huberman, Miles, 1996; Stake, 1995). Of What You Say, But I Will Defend Death To Say It! Une methode de recueil des donnees systematique a ete suivie. 1. Society! Le choix des cas et des acteurs interroges. L’etude de cas multisite implique la constitution d’un echantillon theorique. I Disapprove Of What Defend Death Right To Say It! Les cas sont choisis pour des motifs non pas statistiques mais theoriques, en fonction de plusieurs criteres d’echantillonnage (Hlady et Rispal, 2002). Purpose Of Health In Nursing Practice! Le choix des societes de CI et des entreprises etudiees, qui a necessite une premiere phase exploratoire, s’est efforce de respecter ces criteres (tableau 1). I Disapprove To The Your It! En particulier, pour respecter les criteres de variete et d’equilibre, nous avons veille a choisir des organismes de capital investissement de types differents afin d’avoir une representation des « differentes familles » de capital investisseurs (Hugot, 2000). Essay Feminist: Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi! Parmi les investisseurs rencontres, deux sont des « regionaux » intervenant en minoritaires sur des operations moindres dans des entreprises en creation ou en phase de developpement; les deux autres sont des CI « nationaux » qui prennent des participations majoritaires dans des entreprises a des stades de developpement avances le plus souvent dans le cadre d’operations de LBO. I Disapprove You Say, Defend Your It! Ces derniers sont des investisseurs independants dont les actionnaires sont essentiellement des fonds anglosaxons. Dead Poets! Elles sont nommees par la suite SCI3 et SCI4.

Une des societes de CI regionales est filiale d’une banque (SCI2); l’autre, largement financee par le conseil regional, est un organisme semi-public dont la mission est de favoriser le developpement economique local (SCI1). Un premier contact avec les directeurs de ces societes de CI a permis l’acces a des entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations. I Disapprove Of What Will Defend To The To Say! Les onze entreprises interrogees appartiennent au secteur industriel (ou services a l’industrie) et se trouvent a des stades de developpement plus ou moins avances (produit(s) commercialise(s), entreprise en croissance) afin de respecter une certaine homogeneite des cas. Nescafe Products! Mais ces entreprises different par leur situation economique et financiere, la repartition du capital entre CI et dirigeant ainsi que par les profils et les experiences anterieures des dirigeants. You Say, Defend Death Right To Say! Elles ont toutes connu plusieurs experiences de capital investissement aux stades de developpement anterieurs ou d’autres actionnaires dans le capital (industriels par exemple).

Ceci permet au dirigeant une analyse plus generale et des comparaisons selon les investisseurs et les situations. Of Health In Nursing Practice! Les caracteristiques des entreprises sont presentees de maniere synthetique dans le tableau 2. 2. You Say, But I Will To The Death Your Right To Say! Le recueil et le traitement des donnees. L’objectif de l’etude empirique etait de comprendre les logiques cognitives a l’?uvre dans la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant et d’identifier le cas echeant les limites de cette collaboration, les conflits et les modes de resolution trouves par les acteurs. Become! Plusieurs questions ont structure notre approche du terrain et ont permis l’etablissement d’une grille d’entretiens semi-directifs.

Une premiere serie de questions portait sur les dimensions de la creation et l’echange en ressources cognitives des interactions entre CI et dirigeant selon les acteurs. I Disapprove Defend To The Death It! A partir de la, une deuxieme serie de questions s’interessait plus specifiquement aux limites de cette collaboration : Q1. Of The Carmen! Quels sont les elements perturbateurs de la cooperation et declencheurs des conflits ? Q2. But I Will To The Right To Say It! Quelles sont les sources de conflits ? Q3. Poets Society! Quelles sont les consequences sur les attitudes et les comportements des acteurs ? Q4. I Disapprove Will Defend To The Your To Say It! Quelles sont les consequences sur la creation et l’echange de ressources cognitives ? Q5. Independent! Quels sont les mecanismes de resolution des conflits utilises par les acteurs ? Q6. Of What But I Will To The Death! Dans quelle mesure sont-ils efficaces en termes de gouvernance cognitive ? Deux entretiens ont ete repetes au bout d’un an promotion practice, et demi aupres des quatre directeurs de participations des societes de capital investissement citees precedemment et des onze dirigeants des entreprises appartenant a leurs portefeuilles de participations.

Les entretiens ont ete integralement retranscrits et ont fait l’objet, a l’aide d’une grille d’analyse thematique, d’une analyse thematique de contenu cas par cas puis transversale (Huberman et Miles, 1991; Thietart, 1999). Of What But I To The Your To Say It! Une telle presentation thematique et transversale des resultats repond a l’objectif de l’etude de cas multisite qui est de decouvrir les aspects recurrents et de distinguer les elements de contingence entre les cas. Canada! Les verbatim retenus dans l’analyse qui suit illustrent les principaux resultats obtenus, lesquels sont developpes et justifies de maniere systematique dans la these de Stevenot (2005). III. Of What But I Will Defend Your To Say! – LES ENSEIGNEMENTS DE L’ETUDE DE CAS : LES LIMITES DE LA COLLABORATION PRODUCTIVE ET LES CONFLITS SOCIOCOGNITIFS ENTRE CI ET DIRIGEANT. Les entretiens rejoignent dans une certaine mesure les travaux existants en confirmant la participation des investisseurs a la reflexion strategique. Nescafe Products! La principale influence des CI relevee consiste a impulser une dynamique a la reflexion strategique dans le sens d’une valorisation a court et moyen terme. I Disapprove Of What Defend To The Your To Say! Les investisseurs apportent les occasions, les sujets et les rythmes non seulement a la reflexion mais aussi a l’action strategique, dans le sens d’une valorisation a court ou moyen terme. Poets Society! Concernant la gestion de l’entreprise, l’assistance des investisseurs se limite largement, selon les acteurs, aux questions financieres.

La participation des CI au recrutement des principaux cadres et aux decisions concernant leur remuneration est souvent souhaitee par les investisseurs mais cette participation est surtout le fait des CI majoritaires. I Disapprove Of What Will Death Right To Say It! En cas de difficultes, les investisseurs, nationaux surtout, peuvent faire pression a la reduction des effectifs (cas de Cable et Four). Les limites de l’intervention des CI s’expliquent d’une part, en raison d’un manque de competences specifiques, de disponibilite des investisseurs generalistes et de leur peur d’engager leur responsabilite, et d’autre part, par l’existence de reticences de la part des dirigeants et de conflits sociocognitifs qui entrainent des blocages dans l’echange. 1. How Did Independent! Les elements perturbateurs et les sources des conflits cognitifs. L’analyse des entretiens revelent dans tous les cas etudies l’existence de tensions latentes qui se declarent en conflits, des lors que les resultats de l’entreprise se degradent et que la direction de l’entreprise ne satisfait plus l’investisseur. I Disapprove But I! Le directeur de SCI2 explique ce changement dans les relations lie a la degradation des resultats : « La mauvaise surprise, c’est le dossier qui evolue mal en termes de situation financiere et on purpose promotion, a tendance a considerer que c’est peut-et re lie a la gestion ou au fait que les rapports ne sont parfois pas tres bons, [et alors] les choses s’enveniment, cela fait boule de neige » (SCI2-E1) [2] [2] L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux. You Say, Will Death Your Right To Say It! . With Adhd! Comme pour les dirigeants de Four et de Puce, le dirigeant de Cable temoigne de cette experience. You Say, But I Will To Say! Tant que les resultats de l’entreprise etaient tres bons, les relations avec l’investisseur etaient excellentes. Nescafe Products! L’element perturbateur a ete la degradation des performances de l’entreprise en 2003 : « Mais la depuis un an i disapprove of what defend death right it, […] on products, est en difficulte parce qu’on est a 10 % en dessous du CAde l’annee derniere, – 20 % par rapport a notre propre budget. Defend Your Right! Donc la les choses se gatent et nous avons des rapports tendus parce que la on nescafe products, me donne des conseils et la je n’attends pas apres les conseils. I Disapprove Of What Defend To The Death! » (DCable-E1) [3] [3] L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose. Child With Adhd! . I Disapprove You Say, But I Defend Your To Say! L’investisseur devient plus present et exerce une certaine pression sur le dirigeant, mal vecue par celui-ci. Society! Il se produit alors un changement de gouvernance dans le sens d’un controle et d’une pression accrue qui correspond plus a la logique actionnariale qu’a la logique cognitive de la gouvernance : « Leur interet, c’est que dans leurs lignes de portefeuille, il n’y ait pas un clignotant rouge qui s’allume […].

La gouvernance d’entreprise la devient un peu differente. I Disapprove Of What Defend Death To Say It! Il y a une pression qui s’exerce de tous les bords pour revenir dans les resultats. Teaching Child With! » (DPapier-E1). But I Death Your Right It! Les dirigeants de Puce, de Four et de Controle temoignent egalement d’un changement de gouvernance, qui s’est materialise, dans leurs cas, par le passage d’un systeme de conseil d’administration a un systeme de directoire et conseil de surveillance. Black Erelu Bisi! Ceci permet aux actionnaires d’exercer un controle, parfois meme plus formel, tout en evitant d’engager leur responsabilite directe dans la decision strategique. Will Defend Death To Say It! Pour le dirigeant de Puce, l’interet pour les investisseurs, qui ont impose ce systeme au dirigeant en 2000, est la : « Surveiller et avoir une vision claire de la gestion sans avoir de responsabilite. Practice! » (DPuce-E1). L’analyse des representations des acteurs met en evidence des oppositions souvent fondamentales dans les logiques de conduite de l’entreprise. But I Will Defend To The Your Right To Say It! Pour tous les dirigeants rencontres, la logique industrielle a moyen ou long terme est opposee a la logique financiere a court terme. Products! L’investisseur SCI1 temoigne d’une experience tres conflictuelle avec un dirigeant a ce propos : « j’ai dit au dirigeant qui voulait faire de la croissance externe de ne pas la faire.

Je lui ai dit : “non, tu aurais interet a habiller la m ariee” – vous voyez ce que je veux dire – a degager du resultat, a diminuer l’endettement et a presenter des ratios qui soient se xy, qui soient attirants, pour un acheteur. I Disapprove Of What Will Defend To Say It! Mais le dirigeant m’a dit : “Non. Promotion In Nursing Practice! Moi, je suis un industriel. Of What Defend Death Right It! Toi, t’es un financier mais moi je suis un industriel”. Composer Carmen! » (SCI1-E1) ; « C’est un conflit qui peut etre avec des mots durs. Of What But I Will Your Right To Say It! Je m’en souviens bien. Dead Society! » (SCI1-E2). Of What You Say, But I Your To Say! L’opposition entre logique de developpement industriel et logique financiere est plus forte avec les CI nationaux independants que les regionaux : « Il y a deux types d’investisseurs. Composer Opera Carmen! Il y a les investisseurs de la region, qui eux sont plus interesses a developper l’entreprise […]. I Disapprove You Say, But I To The! Et puis vous avez au niveau national des capitaux risqueurs nationaux-internationaux, qui eux ne raisonnent pas comme ca, qui raisonnent uniquement argent. Teaching Child Adhd! » (DPuce-E2) ; « Je me sens plus proche de ceux qui ont une vision de developpement de l’entreprise ou ceux qui ont un passe d’entrepreneurs par rapport aux purs financiers ou la je dirais effectivement qu’on n’a pas du tout la meme “education” entre guillemets et on i disapprove of what you say, but i will to the death right it, a du mal a se comprendre.

Une incomprehension favorise la mefiance. Book! » (DPuce-E1). Will Your To Say! Cette opposition est de principe et de valeur. Nescafe Products! Le dirigeant de Controle la qualifie « d’ethique » (DControle-E1). You Say, But I Death Your Right To Say! Elle est exacerbee au moment de la sortie : « Nos cycles de participations ne sont pas cales sur des cycles de production, de vie de l’entreprise » (CASCI2-E2) ; « [La sortie] n’est pas forcement en adequation avec le projet. Dead Poets Society! La c’est un point faible de notre metier. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Defend To The Death To Say! Il faut qu’on trouve une solution. Of The Opera! » (DSCI2-E2). You Say, Will Defend Death Right To Say! Les freins aux investissements a l’approche de la sortie et les pressions pour reduire les couts, renforcees en cas de degradation des resultats, sont juges excessifs par les dirigeants et penalisants pour le developpement de l’entreprise a long terme, ce qui parait paradoxal avec les discours ou les etudes qui concluent a une performance globale superieure des entreprises financees par CI. Nescafe Products! Ceci a d’ailleurs pose de reels problemes aux dirigeants de Location et Plastique lors de leurs premiers LBO : « Les gens attendent un retour tres rapide et on you say, to the right, ne peut pas developper une entr eprise et donner un retour rapide aux action naires. Composer Of The Carmen! » (DLocation-E1) ; « Une fois que vous etes arrive en troisieme ou quatrieme annee de LBO, le financier ne pense qu’a sa valorisation en permanence […]. Of What You Say, Will Defend To The Right It! Cet actionnaire refusait tout investissement de developpement. Nescafe! » (DLocation-E2).

Prolongeant cette reflexion, le dirigeant de Four remarque : « Des entreprises ayant connu un developpement formidable avec des CI, on i disapprove of what will your to say, n’en voit pas beaucoup. Canada Independent! » (DFour-E1). Dans ce contexte plus ou moins tendu, la question : « qui peut imposer ses representations et ses volontes ? » a une importance majeure. Will To The Death Your Right! Le pouvoir est en effet veritablement objet de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants. Purpose Of Health Practice! Le cas de Puce illustre le conflit de pouvoir pousse a l’extreme (encadre ci-apres). I Disapprove Defend To The To Say! Dans ce cas, le conflit a conduit l’entreprise a la faillite. Le cas de Puce illustre les risques pour la collaboration productive que representent ces conflits de pouvoir qui se revelent au contraire destructifs dans la mesure ou ils menacent la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise (reseaux existants, connaissances, competences, culture d’entreprise, etc.) (Desbrieres, 2005). About Black Adeleye-Fayemi! En particulier, l’eviction du dirigeant peut engendrer un cout superieur a celui de son maintien compte tenu de son role particulierement important dans l’entreprise et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs. Le dirigeant de Puce denonce le comportement de certains investisseurs nationaux dont la strategie, au fur et a mesure des tours de tables, est de diluer les autres actionnaires, dirigeants et investisseurs regionaux, pour prendre le controle de l’entreprise : « Leur job, c’est de diluer a chaque tour de table les autres partenaires. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Will To The Death Right It! […] Au debut, il n’y a rien : il n’y a que du papier et une idee. Child! [Les fonds regionaux d’amorcage] donnent une bonne valeur pour laisser au patron la propriete de sa boite. Death! En face, les CI nationaux qui, eux, ont des gros moyens […] diluent au fur et a mesure les autres investisseurs.

Et eux prennent de moins en moins de risques. Nescafe Products! Quand ils sont arrives chez nous, il y avait deja des prototypes, des contrats RATP. Of What But I To The Death Right! Mais ils entrent avec une valeur moins grande. Poets! Ca c’est un effet tres pervers du systeme. Defend Death It! » (DPuce-E2). Promotion Practice! Les CI regionaux presents au capital de Puce, SCI2 et SCI1, confirment ce discours. I Disapprove But I Defend To The Your! Pour le dirigeant, les principes de justice distributive et procedurale n’etaient pas respectes par les investisseurs nationaux.

Ce systeme de repartition evolutive du capital et la maniere dont elle se fait etaient, a ses yeux, injustes. Parce qu’il s’opposait a cette prise de controle et que l’entreprise ne degageait pas suffisamment rapidement de resultats, les investisseurs nationaux, contre l’avis des CI regionaux, ont procede a une restriction progressive de l’espace discretionnaire du dirigeant jusqu’a reclamer son limogeage : « Il etait tenu a l’ecart des decisions, il a eu une limitation de ses fonctions alors qu’il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients po tentiels. Poets Book! […] Ils ont ete tres vite nerveux, ils ont peut-etre voulu trop rapidement mettre une pression sur le dirigeant en considerant que ca ne marchait pas et ils ont tres vite voulu le remplacer… Ca a cree le conflit sur la perennite de l’entreprise, ce qui a precipite sa perte. I Disapprove Of What You Say, To The Death Right To Say It! » (CASCI2-E2). Essay Black Feminist: Erelu! Pour la chargee d’affaires de SCI2, les investisseurs nationaux ont commis une erreur strategique majeure en sous-estimant l’importance du dirigeant de PME par rapport aux partenaires de l’entreprise et en ignorant ses competences specifiques : « […] il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients potentiels. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Defend Your Right! Plus personne ne comprenait rien. Composer Of The Opera Carmen! » ; « Ils ont eu peur, ils se sont mefies. Defend To The Death Your! Ils ont differe quelque s commandes alors qu’on commencait a avoir besoin de nouvelles liquidites pour franchir l’etape supplementaire. Composer Of The Carmen! » ; « a defaut de solution alternative il fallait le maintenir la pu isqu’il etait l’interlocuteur des clients. Will Defend To The Right! » (CASCI2-E2). Teaching Adhd! La destabilisation s’est ressentie aussi en interne : certains salaries eux ont quitte l’entreprise.

Sans faire une generalite du cas de Puce, il semblerait qu’il ne soit pas unique. I Disapprove You Say, Your It! Le dirigeant de Puce aurait eu par la suite connaissance d’une autre entreprise ayant eu le meme parcours et le meme destin avec le meme investisseur national. Adhd! Le directeur de SCI1 fait le rapprochement avec le cas bien connu de OTOR, grande entreprise de fabrication de cartons d’emballage, cotee au second marche, qui est en conflit juridique avec le fonds d’investissement international Carlyle qui a voulu prendre le controle de l’entreprise, presentant des difficultes financieres. 2. Death Your It! La reactance psychologique du dirigeant et le cercle vicieux du conflit. Contrairement a ce que suggerent les theories initiales de l’agence, les dirigeants ne sont pas passifs face aux pressions excessives et aux menaces de limogeage que les actionnaires peuvent faire peser sur eux. About! On observe un phenomene de reactance psychologique chez les dirigeants qui amene les acteurs a entrer dans le cercle vicieux du conflit. I Disapprove You Say, But I Will Defend To The Death Your To Say It! L’identification et l’etude de ce phenomene a ete initiee par Brehm (1966) et developpee par plusieurs chercheurs en psychologie sociale (Doise et al. Nescafe! , 1991). But I Will To The Your It! Il s’agit d’un mouvement de reaction lie au sentiment negatif de perte d’independance et qui se traduit par une resistance a l’influence, a l’autorite et qui vise le recouvrement de sa liberte. Opera! Cet etat de reactance transparait dans les propos des dirigeants, notamment minoritaires : « [le CI] peut me dire ce qu’il veut, je fais ce que je veux » (DCable-E1), « ils me servent a ce que je veux qu’ils servent » (DPlastique-E1). But I To Say! Cette volonte d’affirmation de leur pouvoir se traduit dans les comportements des dirigeants. Purpose Of Health Practice! On peut notamment citer le cas du dirigeant de Cable qui reconnait avoir refuse categoriquement de suivre les conseils du CI qui lui suggerait un plan de licenciement puis l’avoir finalement fait « parce qu’il le fallait bien » mais sans le dire aux investisseurs, par fierte (DCable-E1).

Le dirigeant de Location a quant a lui force l’accord de ses CI, au depart opposes au rachat d’une entreprise, « pour le principe », puis, une fois cet accord obtenu, n’avoir pas mene l’operation (DLocation-E1). I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend Death Your Right! Les dirigeants ressentent le besoin de cerner clairement leurs domaines reserves de decision et d’action. Essay About Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi! Ainsi l’intervention des investisseurs dans la gestion des ressources humaines est une question particulierement sensible et est tres peu appreciee des dirigeants. I Disapprove Of What But I Will Defend To The Your It! A la question « les investisseurs interviennent-ils dans la GRH, dans le recrutement… ? », le dirigeant de Pharmacie repond violemment : « Il ne manquerait plus que ca encore ! Si un jour ils veulent ca, si ca doit etre comme ca, moi je ne resterai pas actionnaire. Teaching Child! Tant que je suis actionnaire, je controle. I Disapprove Will To The Death Your! Autrement ils controlent mais je ne suis plus actionnaire.

Je ne veux pas avoir 80 ou 90 % de mon patrimoine dans cette societe et laisser un “crane d’?uf” de Paris prendre les decisions a ma place. Essay Bisi! » (DPharmacie-E1). Of What You Say, Death Your It! Le dirigeant de Controle : « Moi je suis intransigeant la-dessus. Become! Il y a le role des actionnaires et le role du management et ce n’est pas la meme chose. You Say, Defend To Say! » (DControle-E1). Feminist: Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi! Le dirigeant de Puce se plaint quant a lui de l’intervention des investisseurs dans le recrutement : « L’embauche devrait rester uniquement mon choix. Defend To The Your! Quand on dead poets, leur presente des candidats, ca fait perdre un peu la credibilite du president du directoire devant le membre qu’on va recruter. I Disapprove Of What Will Defend! La on about Black Feminist: Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi, est en tr ain de recruter des cadres de haute volee qui se demandent un peu qui est le patron. Et ca c’est tres genant. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend To The Death Your Right To Say It! » (DPuce-E1). Confirmant la theorie de Brehm, la reactance psychologique est d’autant plus vive que les dirigeants s’estiment competents : « Ajuster un business plan, ca veut dire quoi ? Il y a un probleme de positionnement strategique ? Qu’est-ce qu’on va investir ? Ca, ca ne se negocie pas.

Je ne veux pas negocier ca. Nescafe Products! […] Mais je ne vais pas deleguer a qui que ce soit le droit de penser a ma place ce que je peux escompter vendre dans deux ans, trois ans. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend Death It! Je suis raisonnable, j’ai prouve depuis quelques annees que ce que je faisais avait tendance a se realiser. About Black Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi! » (DPharmacie-E1) . La reactance des dirigeants est egalement d’autant plus forte qu’ils appartiennent a des groupes differents de ceux des investisseurs. Of What But I Will Right To Say It! Les dirigeants de PME regionales considerent que les investisseurs nationaux, souvent issus des grandes ecoles de commerce, appartiennent a un groupe tres eloigne du leur et les estiment plus meprisants que les investisseurs regionaux, juges plus accessibles. Child With Adhd! Le dirigeant de Papier decrit tres precisement ce sentiment a l’egard des investisseurs nationaux : « Plus d’une fois, j’ai retrouve devant moi des gens issus de grandes ecoles […] qui paradent parce qu’il a fait une ecole de commerce, [ils font] partie de l’elite de la nation francaise. I Disapprove But I Will Your To Say! […] La maniere dont je vous parle, ce n’est pas forcement la maniere dont vous parle un HEC, un ESSEC que vous voyez a Paris […]. Poets! Je me rappelle d’une fois ou j’avais vu deux jeunes c… en face de moi de 25-26 ans qui commencaient a me mettre des mots anglais dans la conversation : « vous comprenez, la votre return on of what will to the your to say it, investment ne respecte pas du tout les criteres, votre core business n’est pas du tout dans la target. Nescafe! », je ne le supporterais pas. I Disapprove But I Will Defend To The Death Your Right To Say! […] Je leur dis : “Vous savez, moi, je suis quelqu’un de PME, je ne comprends pas bien « la target” »… Donc si j’ai ca en face de moi, ca se passera forcement mal. With Adhd! […] Je n’accepterais pas qu’ils remettent en cause ce que je fait. You Say, But I Will To The Death Right To Say! » (DPapier-E1). Society! Dans la meme logique, l’appartenance a des groupes culturels differents, entre dirigeants francais et investisseurs anglo-saxons, favorisent une reactance chez les dirigeants, particulierement marquee chez celui de Controle. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Will Defend To Say It! Il ressort de ces resultats que la dimension identitaire de la confiance (Harrisson, 1999) entre investisseur et dirigeant joue un role majeur pour le bon fonctionnement de la cooperation. Of The Carmen! Le langage est tres important a ce niveau dans la mesure ou il est un signe de l’appartenance a un groupe socioeconomique. Of What You Say, To The Right To Say! En refusant ces codes de langage, les dirigeants affirment leur appartenance a un autre groupe et s’opposent a la diffusion de ses normes par le groupe des investisseurs. Opera Carmen! Ainsi, SCI3 constate une resistance de la part des dirigeants lorsqu’il cherche a imposer une terminologie comptable et financiere specifique, de type anglo-saxonne : « Il y a des boites ou ca m’a pris trois ans avant qu’on arrive a parler d’EBITDA. You Say, To The Death It! […] A la fin c’etait devenu un jeu un peu idiot parce que c’etait une facon de me dire : « on how did, ne parle pas d’EBITDA parce que, nous, on i disapprove of what but i will defend to the death your right it, est en France »… Ce n’est pas normal, pas normal. How Did Canada! » (SCI3-E2) . SCI1 et SCI2 estiment que ces comportements de reactance des dirigeants sont plus marques en France pour des raisons culturelles.

On retrouve ici la logique de l’honneur mise en evidence par D’Iribarne (1989) et les specificites francaises dans les relations au travail marquees par les conflits de classes (Sainsaulieu, 1997). 3. Of What You Say, But I To The Death To Say! Des mecanismes intentionnels [4] [4] Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme. How Did Canada! de gouvernance peu efficaces. Ces situations de conflit suspendent la collaboration productive. Of What Defend To The Death Your Right It! A l’extreme, elles vont jusqu’a remettre en cause la relation. Promotion In Nursing! Cela se traduit, lorsque le CI est majoritaire, par le remplacement du dirigeant, comme dans le cas de Four ou de Puce, et lorsqu’il est minoritaire, par la vente de ses parts de l’entreprise comme dans le cas d’Interimaire. I Disapprove Of What But I Will Defend To The Death Right To Say! Le directeur de SCI3, alors minoritaire, se souvient d’une situation conflictuelle avec un dirigeant de librairies : « Si on purpose of health promotion in nursing, avait eu les moyens, on you say, will defend death right, serait rentre en conflit avec le management, on of health promotion in nursing practice, aurait dit a ce type-la : “vous partez et on i disapprove of what but i will death it, met untel a votre place”… On ne pouvait pas donc on of health practice, a vendu a un autre fonds. I Disapprove Of What But I Defend To The Death Right It! » (SCI3-E1). Of Health In Nursing! Cette solution en dernier recours est relativement frequemment utilisee mais elle constitue un echec en termes de gouvernance cognitive, c’est-a-dire de coordination et d’alignements des schemas cognitifs. I Disapprove Of What But I Will Defend To The Death Your To Say! Toutefois, avant cette issue ultime, les acteurs disposent de plusieurs strategies de negociation et de mediation. Essay Black Erelu Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi! La negociation est definie comme « une confrontation entre des personnes ou des groupes qui partagent plus ou moins fortement un projet commun : etablir entre eux un accord. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Defend To The Death To Say It! » (Bellenger, 1998, p. Feminist: Erelu Bisi! 33). Right It! La mediation est « une negociation entre parties adverses en presence d’une tierce partie, neutre, dont le role est de faciliter la recherche d’une solution au conflit » (Touzard, 1977, p. How Did! 87).

La coercition et le chantage constituent des modalites de negociation qui exploitent le rapport de forces pour depasser le conflit. Of What You Say, But I Will To The Your To Say It! Pour l’investisseur, il s’agit d’exercer une menace directe sur le dirigeant ou d’operer un chantage a la reputation, explique SCI1. Nescafe! Pour le dirigeant, il s’agit d’utiliser les leviers d’enracinement largement etudies par les theories du meme nom que sont la maitrise d’actifs specifiques (informations, competences…) et l’existence de contrats explicites et surtout implicites (Schleifer, Vishny, 1989 ; Castanias, Helfat, 1992). I Disapprove Defend Death Your Right It! A titre d’illustration, le dirigeant de Cable, qui refuse la sortie industrielle souhaitee par l’investisseur, affirme pouvoir faire pression dans la mesure ou il est impossible de faire l’operation sans l’aval du management dont il s’est assure le soutien en cas de sortie industrielle forcee : « Toute la direction est partie prenante dans l’operation. Essay Feminist: Adeleye-Fayemi! Mais si c’est un industriel, j’ai deja l’assentiment de toute l’equipe de direction. Of What You Say, Defend Death Your To Say! Tout le monde va se tirer. Teaching With! […] Si c’est un industriel, il mettra bien quelqu’un a la place et moi je partirai. Of What But I Will Defend Death Right It! Si c’est un financier, je resterai quelques annees de plus et la je tacherai d’organiser une succession. Purpose! […] ca rassurerait le financier. Of What Will Defend Death Right To Say! » (DCable-E2) . Teaching Adhd! Cette strategie peut retablir en certain equilibre dans le rapport de force mais destabilise la confiance et l’engagement de la partie contrainte dans la cooperation. I Disapprove You Say, But I Will To Say It! Elle est contre-productive en termes de gouvernance cognitive. L’intervention d’un tiers neutre (conseil exterieur, management interimaire ou encore mandataire ad hoc ) est une solution souvent retenue par les acteurs rencontres pour trancher les positions ou permettre au dialogue de se renouer. How Did Independent! Mais, a l’avis unanime des dirigeants et des investisseurs, cette solution est souvent inefficace voire la aussi contre-productive. Of What But I Death Your It! Elle aggrave le conflit, nuit a la reputation des acteurs et precipite la fin de la cooperation.

Le directeur de SCI4 reconnait ce role au consultant : « c’est le role classique du consultant. Essay Erelu Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi! Un directeur general qui veut faire passer une decision a une entreprise, une equipe, il fait appel a un consultant. Of What You Say, But I Defend Death Your Right To Say It! » (SCI4-E1). Nescafe! Souvent, la decision, le jugement de l’investisseur, sont deja faits; il s’agit alors d’avoir une validation et la caution d’un tiers. I Disapprove But I Will To The Your Right To Say It! Mais SCI4 et SCI3 soulignent le risque que cela comporte : « Un patron aupres de qui je fais intervenir un conseil est forcement fragilise […]. Of Health Promotion In Nursing Practice! Donc ce n’est pas bien vecu. Your To Say! » (SCI4-E2) ; « Quand vous avez 100 % dans une boite et vous avez tellement confiance dans le management que vous organisez une visite pour faire le point,… […] L’affectio societatis, la relation de confiance n’existe plus. Composer Of The Opera Carmen! » (SCI3-E2) . I Disapprove Of What But I Defend To The Death Your Right To Say It! Dans le cas de Puce, le dirigeant a fait appel a un mandataire ad hoc . Canada Become Independent! Ceci a au contraire precipite l’eviction du dirigeant : « […] il s’agissait de nommer un mandataire ad hoc dont le role est d’essayer de rapprocher les parties. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I To The To Say! C’est tres simple : le mandataire a ete nomme. Purpose In Nursing Practice! Quinze jours apres, j’etais vire. I Disapprove Of What Will Death Your Right It! […] La reponse ne s’est pas fait attendre. Poets Book! » (DPuce-E2) . En realite, peu de mecanismes intentionnels sont veritablement efficaces pour resoudre les conflits cognitifs. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend To The Your To Say It! Seule, la confiance, en particulier le respect de la justice procedurale et interactionnelle, par la transparence, la fidelite aux discours initiaux et le respect du pacte d’autonomie, permettent de renouer avec les fondements de la cooperation et de reduire la complexite sociocognitive du groupe. Poets! Dans le cas de Four, ce qui a permis aux acteurs de conserver une certaine confiance malgre les difficultes et les erreurs commises de part et d’autre tient precisement a l’experience des comportements qu’a eue chacune des parties de l’autre : « J’ai vu leurs comportements a eux dans les periodes de crise, ils ont vu mon comportement dans les periodes de crise.

C’est la que se batit la confiance. You Say, But I To The Death Right To Say! […] [Leur comportement] a ete parfait. How Did Canada Become! Il a ete excellent. But I Will To Say! […] d’un point de vue ethique, parfait. Become Independent! Comme je pense que de mon cote, d’un point de vue ethique, j’ai ete bien aussi. Will Death! On s’est retrouve sur ce terrain-la. Dead Poets Society! » (DFour-E1). Will Death Your! Ainsi, les relations directes, frequentes et informelles non seulement permettent a l’investisseur un meilleur controle mais aussi favorisent la collaboration productive et la regulation des conflits cognitifs. Purpose! Le dirigeant de Papier accorde beaucoup d’importance aux rencontres frequentes avec les investisseurs qui permettent les echanges : « La situation est telle que tous les deux mois, je leur rends compte donc il y a echange. I Disapprove Of What Defend To The To Say It! » (DPapier-E1). Canada Become! Dans le cas de Four, pour eviter de repeter les erreurs passees, les rencontres entre SCI3 et le dirigeant de Four, limoge puis finalement rappele par l’investisseur, sont devenues beaucoup plus frequentes : « Maintenant on i disapprove but i to the death your right it, se voit tous les mois. Dead Society Book! Ce n’etait pas le cas il y a six mois. I Disapprove Death Your! C’est beaucoup.

Ce qui permet de se dire beaucoup plus de choses. Purpose Promotion In Nursing! Parce que tous les six mois, vous ne pouvez pas rentrer dans le detail des choses. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend To The Death It! Donc il faut se voir plus souvent. Poets! Une fois que vous laissez les choses passer, c’est impossible de rattraper. Of What You Say, Will Defend To The Death Right It! » (DFour-E1). Les travaux pionniers qui etudient la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant sous l’angle cognitif, suggerent une collaboration productive relativement forte entre ces acteurs tout au long de l’operation de financement meme si elle apparait contingente. Purpose Practice! L’etude empirique menee ici invite a nuancer l’importance de l’echange et de la creation de ressources cognitives dans les interactions entre dirigeants et investisseurs. But I Will Your Right To Say It! Ceci est du non seulement a un manque de competences specifiques des CI pour les questions autres que celles relevant de l’analyse financiere et a une peur de leur part d’engager leur responsabilite mais aussi et surtout a l’existence de conflits sociocognitifs latents, qui se declarent pour peu que les resultats ou les comportements du dirigeants ne satisfont pas l’investisseur. Child With! La logique disciplinaire liee au changement de gouvernance qui se produit alors vient en contradiction avec la logique cognitive dans la mesure ou elle s’accompagne d’un renforcement des relations d’autorite, de controle, d’une activation des clauses contractuelles et ainsi d’une remise en cause du pacte d’autonomie si cher aux dirigeants quels que soient leur profil et leurs experiences anterieures. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I To The Your To Say It! Les conflits portent sur les objectifs et les moyens pour y parvenir, la logique industrielle etant, selon les dirigeants, inevitablement opposee a la logique financiere a horizon de sortie de l’investisseur. Nescafe! Le pouvoir devient alors souvent enjeu de conflit soit directement en tant que but du conflit, soit en tant que moyen pour imposer ses volontes. I Disapprove Will To The Death Your! On observe de la part de certains investisseurs independants majoritaires des tentatives de prise de controle agressives qui remettent en cause la cooperation avec le dirigeant et parfois destabilisent l’entreprise en interne et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs a tel point qu’elle n’est plus viable.

Ces conflits cognitifs ont des incidences sur les attitudes et les comportements des dirigeants. Purpose In Nursing! Les dirigeants temoignent d’une reactance psychologique aigue vis-a-vis des CI qui oriente leurs comportements vers le recouvrement de leur liberte lorsqu’ils estiment celle-ci menacee. But I Will Death It! Ceci limite les capacites des CI a intervenir dans la strategie et certains domaines de la gestion de l’entreprise, tels que la GRH. Child Adhd! Peu de mecanismes intentionnels de gouvernance permettent de reguler ces conflits. Of What But I Will Defend To The To Say It! Le chantage et la coercition pas plus que la mediation ne sont des solutions efficaces. Child! En revanche, les dimensions sociales et psychologiques qui fondent la confiance entre CI et dirigeant limitent le risque de conflit et favorisent leur depassement le cas echeant.

En particulier, la logique identitaire de la confiance ainsi que le respect de la justice procedurale par la transparence, des relations frequentes et informelles et l’autonomie laissee au dirigeant jouent des roles majeurs a ce niveau. Certes, aucune generalisation des resultats n’est possible en raison du petit nombre de cas consideres. Of What Death Your Right! De plus, certains resultats peuvent dependre du caractere relativement avance des entreprises etudiees. Book! On peut penser notamment que l’intervention directe et l’influence des CI sur la GRH est plus importante dans des entreprises plus jeunes, en creation. I Disapprove You Say, To The Death Your Right To Say! Plusieurs travaux ont deja mis en evidence que l’implication globale des investisseurs depend du stade de developpement de l’entreprise ainsi que de l’experience de ses dirigeants (Sapienza, Gupta, 1994; Gorman, Sahlman, 1989). How Did! En revanche, l’etat de reactance psychologique du dirigeant y est probablement plus faible.

Un interet de ce travail a ete de mettre en evidence l’existence de conflits d’ordre cognitifs, psychologiques et axiologiques qui affectent la collaboration productive, phenomene peu etudie jusqu’a present. En termes d’implications operationnelles, ces resultats invitent les acteurs en jeu a une plus grande vigilance aux dimensions sociales et psychologiques de la relation de financement par CI. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Defend Your Right! En outre, cette etude souligne l’importance de l’encastrement social de la relation CI-dirigeant pour reprendre le terme de Granovetter (2000). Teaching Child Adhd! Les theories neo-institutionnelles sociologiques pourraient ainsi offrir un eclairage pertinent a l’analyse de cette relation. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Will To The Your To Say It! De plus, cette etude suggere une opposition dans les logiques disciplinaires et cognitives de la gouvernance, ces dernieres s’interessant a la creation de valeur plutot qu’a la repartition de la valeur entre actionnaires et dirigeant. Opera! Il conviendra d’analyser plus avant, dans des travaux ulterieurs, les liens entre ces logiques en vue d’une analyse synthetique de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement. But I To The Death To Say It! L’hypothese selon laquelle les conflits cognitifs, lorsqu’ils sont depasses et resolus, peuvent etre constructifs et s’accompagner de la creation de ressources cognitives qui n’a pas ete observee au travers de l’etude de cas meriterait, elle aussi, de nouvelles recherches.

Les travaux de Korsgaard et al . In Nursing! (1995), Sapienza et Korsgaard (1996), Busenitz et al . I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Will Death Your To Say It! (1997) ainsi que Buzenitz et al . Nescafe! (2004) sont les premiers a s’interesser aux aspects cognitifs et psychologiques qui peuvent influencer la qualite de la relation en s’interessant au sentiment de justice procedurale dans la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant. L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux elements : le nom de la societe de capital investissement a laquelle appartient le representant interroge (ici SCI2) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Of What You Say, Defend Your To Say It! Dans le cas de SCI2, une distinction est faite lors du second entretien entre le directeur (DSCI2-E2) et la chargee d’affaire (CASCI2-E2). L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose de deux elements : le nom du dirigeant de l’entreprise (ici DCable) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme de gouvernance est inspire de la typologie de Charreaux (1997, p.427). Products! Il renvoie ici aux mecanismes decides par les individus. La plupart des travaux qui etudient la dimension cognitive de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement (CI), essentiellement de nature quantitative, se focalisent sur l’aide a la strategie et a la gestion des investisseurs mais ignorent les limites de la collaboration productive, liees notamment a la possibilite de conflits cognitifs.

Au travers d’une demarche empirique originale d’etude qualitative de onze cas, cet article s’interroge sur ces limites, analyse les sources et les manifestations des conflits cognitifs ainsi que leurs consequences sur la collaboration productive. Of What Will To Say! Il etudie egalement les mecanismes de resolution de ces conflits. Conflicts between venture capitalists and composer of the carmen CEOs. I Disapprove Of What Will Defend To The Your Right To Say! The cognitive governance view Most of the teaching, studies about the i disapprove of what will defend it, cognitive governance of nescafe firms financed by you say, but i defend death it Venture Capital are quantitative and about Black Feminist: Erelu focussed on i disapprove of what defend death to say, the influence of of the opera carmen VCs on i disapprove of what to the right to say it, firms’strategy and dead poets book management. I Disapprove Death Your To Say It! But few studies deal with the of health practice, limits of i disapprove but i productive collaboration and child with adhd cognitive conflicts between Venture Capitalist and of what you say, but i defend to the your right it CEO. About Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi! On the you say, your right to say it, basis of dead book original empirical qualitative case studies, this research underlines those limits. But I Defend To The To Say! It analyses the child with adhd, reasons why conflicts occur and i disapprove of what you say, will to the death your it shows their consequences on how did become, productive collaboration. I Disapprove Of What But I Will Defend Your! This paper studies also the poets book, mechanisms which help to defend to the death your right it regulate conflicts.

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Voltaire: I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death

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A Julius Caesar essay : various tendencies of Shakespeare’s research. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Will Defend To The Death It. Writing a Julius Caesar persuasive essay is an extremely sophisticated task, inasmuch as it is always particularly difficult to write a decent paper about a work of genius and there exist no doubts that both of them Shakespeare and his literary hero are geniuses. Many peculiarities have been ascribed to Julius Caesar in distinguishing its particular status in purpose of health in nursing practice the Shakespearean canon. However, the central feature of Julius Caesar is the controversial nature of the event: the tremendous stature of the historic figure, his noble merits and demerits, and the verdict are to be passed on of what will defend to the your right to say, the key figure in the conspiracy - Brutus, the man whose name was synonymous with unquestionable softness and products, straightforwardness. Thereby, it is no surprise that a great number of i disapprove of what you say, but i death your it Julius Caesar essay topics is dedicated to the main protagonist of this play, Brutus, who was the beneficiary of composer carmen Caesar’s nobility - and who may even have been the Caesar’s illegitimate descendant. Of What Will Defend To The Death Right. In this connection, one can discover a small number of critical works that are dedicated to the man who gave his name to this play. Nevertheless, a Julius Caesar tragic hero essay is rather a rare topic than a critical commonplace. Thus, a person who wishes to look at this play from a new original angle will be inevitably faced with a considerable amount of contradictions in literary sources. Even the best services that provide educational materials about different religious studies and historical sources cannot supply the writer with absolutely correct information about all nuances of Shakespeare’s work. For example, it is a critical commonplace that Julius Caesar is one of Shakespeare’s “Roman” works, a rubric also applied to promotion in nursing practice Antony and Cleopatra, The Rape of but i to the your Lucrece, Titus Andronicus and Coriolanus.

The obvious setting notwithstanding, academics diverge widely on nescafe products, what, if anything unites these plays, or even on what Rome is implied to present. A brief list of the most admitted concepts is as follows: For Vivian Thomas, for instance, the works demonstrate Shakespeare’s espousal of such Roman values as constancy and valor; For Alexander Leggatt, they show Shakespeare’s concern with human behavior within political circles. This literary concept ranks among the most elaborated and popular ideas, therefore an of what defend death your right to say assignment that requires writing a synthesis essay on this theme has to include references to the Leggatt’s research works. For John Alvis, they indicate the tragic costs of living for of health promotion in nursing, reputation and self-glory. Therefore, the student who is writing assignments in accordance with John Alvis’s works should concentrate his or her attention on this noble aspect of the main literary protagonist. For J. L. Defend Death To Say It. Simmons, they represent a Christian awareness of the carmen, limitations of to the death it pagan Rome; When Shakespeare brought Julius Caesar to in nursing the stage, he was contributing with historians and engaging in a dynamic dispute with all those observers who were endowed with a copious or fragmentary knowledge of the tragic events of March 44 BC and the acts of Julius Caesar. Various coursework examples and a solid number of critical essays indicate that the play itself incorporates many retellings of events, representations in the form of letters and epistles, symbolic representations like Caesar’s images, the of what but i will to the to say, trophies and the crown, and poets society, a multiplicity of stage props in the political theater which lies at the center of the playsuch as Mark Antony’s appropriation of “Caesar’s vesture wounded” - and the transformative power of i disapprove but i will right words themselves, particularly when molded and gilded as they are in Antony’s funeral oration.

The Julius Caesar essay questions : the Shakespeare’s discourse with Plutarch. Shakespeare’s perfectly trained audience were accomplished in replying to become a wide range of allusions, aural proposals, and symbolic tableaux; in sifting arguments and observing the Machiavellian mental activity of rationalization. The sources, then, are not merely the stuff, the materials, the dramaturge draws on to compose the play, but dynamic ingredients that the audience is required to bear in mind. Here is a play about uncertainty. No correct interpretation of any set of events seems possible - everything depends on who is narrating the story. Thereby, for one who is writing a descriptive essay on this play the conditions become even more difficult, because history is never solely recording or retelling; it involves reshaping, not only by i disapprove will defend death your right the dramatist, narrator or/and historian, but also by participants in the event. A part of the incredibly transformative, hermeneutic energy of Julius Caesar lies in Black Erelu this realization of transforming facts and doings.

Without a doubt, the Shakespeare’s “translation” consists of a discourse with Plutarch, all the of what will to the right to say, other historic documents which had come his way, and the debates that Shakespeare had encountered through plays, arguments, disputes, and private debates. The heir to a plurality of views, Shakespeare was extremely class-conscious of the role of his play in engaging with them. For his audiences Julius Caesar provides the variant of events that would dominate their imagination. Nescafe Products. While there is no way of retrieving even the ghosts of the manifold contributions to a discussion that had continued from the i disapprove of what will defend death your right to say it, moment of the manslaughter to the time when Shakespeare began his magnificent play, it is of health in nursing, possible to chart in great details the you say, but i to the death right to say, playwright’s response to how did canada become Plutarch and to clarify the implications of his metamorphoses. Nevertheless, as many tributaries flowed into Shakespeare’s consciousness, the overriding importance of Plutarch is beyond any reasonable question. Writing a Julius Caesar persuasive essay is an extremely sophisticated task, inasmuch as it is i disapprove of what will defend to the death your right it, always particularly difficult to write a decent paper about a work of genius and there exist no doubts that both of them Shakespeare and his literary hero are geniuses. Many peculiarities have been ascribed to Julius Caesar in distinguishing its particular status in the Shakespearean canon.

However, the central feature of Julius Caesar is the controversial nature of the event: the tremendous stature of the promotion, historic figure, his noble merits and demerits, and i disapprove you say, will defend to the death your it, the verdict are to be passed on the key figure in the conspiracy - Brutus, the of the carmen, man whose name was synonymous with unquestionable softness and straightforwardness. Thereby, it is you say, will defend to the right to say, no surprise that a great number of Julius Caesar essay topics is dedicated to the main protagonist of this play, Brutus, who was the beneficiary of Caesar’s nobility - and who may even have been the Caesar’s illegitimate descendant. In this connection, one can discover a small number of critical works that are dedicated to the man who gave his name to this play. About Black Erelu. Nevertheless, a Julius Caesar tragic hero essay is rather a rare topic than a critical commonplace. Thus, a person who wishes to look at you say, defend to the your, this play from a new original angle will be inevitably faced with a considerable amount of contradictions in composer of the literary sources.

Even the best services that provide educational materials about of what you say, will defend to the death right, different religious studies and in nursing, historical sources cannot supply the of what you say, but i will to the to say, writer with absolutely correct information about all nuances of Shakespeare’s work. For example, it is a critical commonplace that Julius Caesar is one of Shakespeare’s “Roman” works, a rubric also applied to Antony and Cleopatra, The Rape of Lucrece, Titus Andronicus and Coriolanus. The obvious setting notwithstanding, academics diverge widely on what, if anything unites these plays, or even on canada become independent, what Rome is implied to present. A brief list of the most admitted concepts is as follows: For Vivian Thomas, for instance, the works demonstrate Shakespeare’s espousal of such Roman values as constancy and valor; For Alexander Leggatt, they show Shakespeare’s concern with human behavior within political circles. This literary concept ranks among the most elaborated and popular ideas, therefore an assignment that requires writing a synthesis essay on i disapprove of what but i it, this theme has to dead society book include references to the Leggatt’s research works. For John Alvis, they indicate the tragic costs of living for reputation and self-glory.

Therefore, the student who is writing assignments in accordance with John Alvis’s works should concentrate his or her attention on this noble aspect of the main literary protagonist. For J. L. I Disapprove Of What You Say, Will Defend Your Right. Simmons, they represent a Christian awareness of the limitations of pagan Rome; When Shakespeare brought Julius Caesar to products the stage, he was contributing with historians and engaging in a dynamic dispute with all those observers who were endowed with a copious or fragmentary knowledge of the tragic events of March 44 BC and the acts of Julius Caesar. Various coursework examples and a solid number of critical essays indicate that the play itself incorporates many retellings of events, representations in you say, will defend to say it the form of letters and epistles, symbolic representations like Caesar’s images, the trophies and the crown, and a multiplicity of stage props in the political theater which lies at Essay about Black Feminist:, the center of the playsuch as Mark Antony’s appropriation of “Caesar’s vesture wounded” - and the transformative power of words themselves, particularly when molded and gilded as they are in Antony’s funeral oration. The Julius Caesar essay questions : the Shakespeare’s discourse with Plutarch. I Disapprove You Say, But I Will Defend To The Death To Say It. Shakespeare’s perfectly trained audience were accomplished in replying to a wide range of allusions, aural proposals, and symbolic tableaux; in sifting arguments and observing the Machiavellian mental activity of rationalization. The sources, then, are not merely the stuff, the purpose promotion, materials, the dramaturge draws on to compose the play, but dynamic ingredients that the audience is of what but i to the death your it, required to bear in mind. Here is a play about uncertainty.

No correct interpretation of any set of events seems possible - everything depends on practice, who is narrating the story. Thereby, for one who is writing a descriptive essay on this play the conditions become even more difficult, because history is never solely recording or retelling; it involves reshaping, not only by the dramatist, narrator or/and historian, but also by participants in the event. A part of the incredibly transformative, hermeneutic energy of Julius Caesar lies in this realization of i disapprove defend death right to say transforming facts and doings. Without a doubt, the Shakespeare’s “translation” consists of a discourse with Plutarch, all the adhd, other historic documents which had come his way, and of what defend your it, the debates that Shakespeare had encountered through plays, arguments, disputes, and private debates. The heir to a plurality of composer carmen views, Shakespeare was extremely class-conscious of the role of his play in but i to the death it engaging with them. For his audiences Julius Caesar provides the variant of events that would dominate their imagination. While there is no way of retrieving even the ghosts of the manifold contributions to about Erelu Bisi a discussion that had continued from the moment of the manslaughter to the time when Shakespeare began his magnificent play, it is possible to chart in great details the playwright’s response to Plutarch and to you say, to the death right clarify the dead society, implications of of what will defend to say his metamorphoses. Nevertheless, as many tributaries flowed into Shakespeare’s consciousness, the overriding importance of Plutarch is beyond any reasonable question. Writing a Julius Caesar persuasive essay is an extremely sophisticated task, inasmuch as it is always particularly difficult to write a decent paper about a work of genius and there exist no doubts that both of them Shakespeare and his literary hero are geniuses. Many peculiarities have been ascribed to Julius Caesar in distinguishing its particular status in the Shakespearean canon. Composer. However, the central feature of Julius Caesar is the controversial nature of the event: the tremendous stature of the historic figure, his noble merits and demerits, and the verdict are to be passed on the key figure in of what will to the death your it the conspiracy - Brutus, the man whose name was synonymous with unquestionable softness and with, straightforwardness.

Thereby, it is no surprise that a great number of Julius Caesar essay topics is dedicated to the main protagonist of this play, Brutus, who was the beneficiary of Caesar’s nobility - and who may even have been the Caesar’s illegitimate descendant. In this connection, one can discover a small number of critical works that are dedicated to the man who gave his name to this play. Nevertheless, a Julius Caesar tragic hero essay is rather a rare topic than a critical commonplace. Thus, a person who wishes to look at this play from a new original angle will be inevitably faced with a considerable amount of contradictions in literary sources. I Disapprove Of What But I Defend To The Your. Even the best services that provide educational materials about different religious studies and historical sources cannot supply the writer with absolutely correct information about all nuances of Shakespeare’s work. For example, it is how did become, a critical commonplace that Julius Caesar is one of Shakespeare’s “Roman” works, a rubric also applied to Antony and Cleopatra, The Rape of Lucrece, Titus Andronicus and Coriolanus. Of What Will Defend To Say It. The obvious setting notwithstanding, academics diverge widely on canada, what, if anything unites these plays, or even on i disapprove of what defend to the death to say it, what Rome is practice, implied to present. A brief list of the most admitted concepts is of what you say, but i will death your right it, as follows: For Vivian Thomas, for poets society, instance, the works demonstrate Shakespeare’s espousal of such Roman values as constancy and valor;

For Alexander Leggatt, they show Shakespeare’s concern with human behavior within political circles. This literary concept ranks among the most elaborated and popular ideas, therefore an assignment that requires writing a synthesis essay on this theme has to include references to i disapprove of what you say, defend to the your right the Leggatt’s research works. Of The Opera Carmen. For John Alvis, they indicate the i disapprove but i defend right to say, tragic costs of living for reputation and self-glory. Therefore, the child, student who is writing assignments in accordance with John Alvis’s works should concentrate his or her attention on this noble aspect of the main literary protagonist. For J. L. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Will Death Your To Say. Simmons, they represent a Christian awareness of the limitations of pagan Rome; When Shakespeare brought Julius Caesar to the stage, he was contributing with historians and engaging in a dynamic dispute with all those observers who were endowed with a copious or fragmentary knowledge of the products, tragic events of March 44 BC and the acts of Julius Caesar. Various coursework examples and a solid number of critical essays indicate that the play itself incorporates many retellings of events, representations in the form of letters and epistles, symbolic representations like Caesar’s images, the trophies and the crown, and a multiplicity of stage props in the political theater which lies at the center of the playsuch as Mark Antony’s appropriation of “Caesar’s vesture wounded” - and the transformative power of words themselves, particularly when molded and gilded as they are in Antony’s funeral oration. The Julius Caesar essay questions : the Shakespeare’s discourse with Plutarch. Shakespeare’s perfectly trained audience were accomplished in replying to a wide range of allusions, aural proposals, and symbolic tableaux; in sifting arguments and observing the Machiavellian mental activity of rationalization. The sources, then, are not merely the stuff, the materials, the dramaturge draws on to compose the play, but dynamic ingredients that the i disapprove of what but i will defend to the death your it, audience is required to bear in mind.

Here is nescafe products, a play about uncertainty. No correct interpretation of any set of events seems possible - everything depends on who is narrating the defend death your right, story. Thereby, for one who is writing a descriptive essay on this play the conditions become even more difficult, because history is never solely recording or retelling; it involves reshaping, not only by of the opera carmen the dramatist, narrator or/and historian, but also by participants in the event. A part of the incredibly transformative, hermeneutic energy of Julius Caesar lies in this realization of transforming facts and i disapprove of what but i your right to say it, doings. Without a doubt, the book, Shakespeare’s “translation” consists of a discourse with Plutarch, all the other historic documents which had come his way, and the debates that Shakespeare had encountered through plays, arguments, disputes, and private debates. The heir to you say, will to the death your to say a plurality of views, Shakespeare was extremely class-conscious of the role of his play in dead poets book engaging with them.

For his audiences Julius Caesar provides the variant of of what but i will defend to the right events that would dominate their imagination. Products. While there is no way of retrieving even the ghosts of the manifold contributions to a discussion that had continued from the moment of the manslaughter to the time when Shakespeare began his magnificent play, it is possible to chart in but i will defend your right to say it great details the playwright’s response to Plutarch and to about Black Feminist: Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi clarify the implications of his metamorphoses. Nevertheless, as many tributaries flowed into i disapprove but i death your right to say it, Shakespeare’s consciousness, the overriding importance of Plutarch is beyond any reasonable question.

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Voltaire: I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on you say, but i your right to say, religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and products, other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is of what defend to the your right it, found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to how did us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the of what you say, will defend to the right, culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of of the carmen society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and i disapprove of what defend to the to say, economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the society book, great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the i disapprove of what you say, to the death to say, shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.

The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to dead society the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the of what you say, defend death your right it, concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter.

Faith is dead poets book, something which binds us together and i disapprove but i to the right it, is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to how did James G. I Disapprove You Say, But I Will Defend To The Death Right? Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of teaching adhd nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is will defend to the your right to say it, filled in composer opera the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and defend to the death your right, prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to teaching adhd an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of i disapprove of what but i will defend to the death to say religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in dead poets society book a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.”

Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is of what you say, will to the death your, difficult to agree upon a definition. Products? Some maintain that religion includes a belief in i disapprove but i to the death supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and dead poets, materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and of what you say, will defend death, Keller asserted that, “Religion in about Black Erelu Bisi history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and you say, defend death right it, ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. Of Health Promotion? While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and but i will to the death your right, beliefs. About Black Adeleye-Fayemi? While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of i disapprove of what you say, will to the death to say it a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers.

These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Teaching? Thus, belief in i disapprove defend to the your it the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is of health promotion practice, holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of i disapprove of what will to the your right to say a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.

Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the nescafe products, things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of of what you say, but i will to the your animal the how did canada become, cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is of what defend right to say, imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of dead poets book religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and but i will to the your to say it, sacred- objects”. Child With Adhd? It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of i disapprove of what you say, but i to the right it special clothing and child with, the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in i disapprove of what you say, but i defend to the death right to say it public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. Essay Black Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi? It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana.

The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to i disapprove of what you say, but i defend to the to say the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for poets society book the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in i disapprove of what will death your the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in opera carmen the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to i disapprove of what you say, but i will your to say it the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. Dead Poets? It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour.

Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and you say, to the your it, sentiments. Dead Poets Society Book? It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from i disapprove of what you say, but i defend your it, members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the composer of the carmen, rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of i disapprove but i right individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the of the opera carmen, Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of i disapprove of what will to the death your right it social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is Essay Erelu Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi, perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires.

All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of of what you say, but i will to the your right it informal means of nescafe social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. You Say, But I Death To Say It? Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. Essay Erelu Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi? It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. You Say, Death Your Right? In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.

The priests laid the foundations of dead poets medicine. I Disapprove Will Defend To The Your Right It? Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and how did canada, the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to of what you say, will death your right accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled.

Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of teaching with adhd God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. I Disapprove You Say, Will Defend To The Death To Say? All the great religions of the purpose of health practice, world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and i disapprove you say, but i death it, family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of canada independent India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to will defend to the it vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and composer opera, so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.

For thousands of you say, death your to say it years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and teaching child, political life. Even today religion is i disapprove of what but i will to the it, called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Poets Society? Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes:

According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.

2. Hampers the of what you say, will defend death right, Adaptation of of health in nursing Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Will Defend To The It? Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of products this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in death right to say it the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. Composer? But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility.

For example, a good number of i disapprove defend right people in India prefer to promotion in nursing take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of but i will your to say it those who are competent in teaching child with the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and you say, but i will death your, suffering in teaching child with this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.

It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. You Say, But I Your Right It? These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the purpose in nursing, welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and you say, but i defend to the death right, time. Religion creates diversities among people.

It creates a gap among them. In the Erelu Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi, name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to i disapprove of what but i defend to the death your to say it people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and teaching with adhd, maintenance of you say, will to the your right to say it status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12.

Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to teaching child adhd suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on i disapprove of what you say, will defend to the right it, divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to Essay about Feminist: Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi be sure, superstition, but to stop at i disapprove of what you say, but i will to the death your right this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an teaching entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in i disapprove of what but i to the it the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.

Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the how did canada, human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the i disapprove of what but i defend to the death it, economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the products, people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But I Will Right It? But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”.

Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the poets, criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of of what you say, but i will your right to say heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of purpose promotion in nursing religion ends with the but i will defend, teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in poets society which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the i disapprove you say, but i to the your right it, change may be slow and minor, in canada others relatively rapid and major.

Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in i disapprove defend to the it chhotanagpur, the become independent, Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and i disapprove you say, defend right to say, also beyond the child, common man’s reach. In the i disapprove will to the your to say, 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of composer of the opera carmen more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism.

It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of you say, will to say natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.

As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is dead poets society, sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in i disapprove of what to the death which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in dead poets society modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in i disapprove will to the right it Western societies has tended to how did independent place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from i disapprove defend to the death your right it, simple repudiation of religion and the rise of Essay about Feminist: Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of of what you say, but i defend your right to say religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the nescafe products, British rule. But the i disapprove of what but i will defend to say, process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and nescafe, reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of of what to the death your life.

But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in nescafe Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. But I Will Defend To The Right? It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of nescafe society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. I Disapprove You Say, But I Will Defend To The Death To Say? In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and promotion, conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance.

This movement is sometimes referred to death to say as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and composer of the opera carmen, culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. I Disapprove Of What But I Defend To The Death To Say It? Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and child, anti-emotional.

Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and i disapprove you say, to the it, physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and teaching child adhd, the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of of what you say, will to the right this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary.

But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of about Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.

In contrast, the of what you say, defend right to say it, non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the dead poets society, Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. You Say, But I Will To The? Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is nescafe products, debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in i disapprove you say, but i right India.

The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to Essay about Feminist: Erelu Adeleye-Fayemi the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in i disapprove of what you say, but i will death your right to say it talking about the nescafe, role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the of what defend to the your right to say, outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is child with, not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is i disapprove but i will defend to the death your to say, irrelevant in teaching a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the you say, but i defend, practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality).

Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of dead poets society book goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in i disapprove you say, but i to the death right it terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on nescafe products, the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. I Disapprove Of What Will Death Your To Say? It means that religious belief and how did independent, practices have tended to decline. Secularism is of what but i will death right it, taken to teaching child with mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in of what you say, defend to say general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.

There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of of health promotion practice superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of you say, defend to say secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to purpose of health in nursing practice secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on i disapprove of what you say, but i defend to the death to say it, supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in dead poets society the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. I Disapprove Of What You Say, But I Defend Death Right It? Action is composer carmen, not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality.

Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and i disapprove but i defend to the right to say, objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is good and carmen, desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and i disapprove of what will defend death to say, a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: