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Employment , Keynesian economics , Minimum wage 817 Words | 3 Pages. The minimum wage was first enacted into law as part of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of is euthanasia legal, 1938. The original . minimum wage applied to workers engaged in interstate commerce and the production of goods for interstate commerce. In 1938, this applied to society book, roughly 11.0 million workers out of a total of 54.9 million workers. The minimum wage was set at $0.25 per is euthanasia hour. However, by 1966 the minimum wage $1.25 and krashen input hypothesis, applied to virtually all workers. In its beginnings, the minimum wage was set at a value that. Cycle of poverty , Minimum wage , Poverty 988 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Research on Minimum Wage. the controversial topics that surround money is is euthanasia legal, if the brutus characteristics, government should increase the minimum wage to help boost . our frail economy and lower class.
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There may be some exceptions based on the type of worker. There are two kinds of minimum wage rates, state and federal. Right now, the current minimum wage is is euthanasia legal in uk, $7.25 per hour. In some states, minimum wages are higher than the federal rate. Workers are paid the higher amount in those locations. Minimum wage has been a hot subject among the policy makers. Employment , Fair Labor Standards Act , Franklin D. Roosevelt 855 Words | 4 Pages. be true that wage rate contribute to unemployment but this essay will discuss wage rate and explain how it could . contribute to unemployment if it is below full employment. Thus it will define and Twelfth Night, Essay, discuss minimum wage as it is set above the equilibrium because above the equilibrium it is is euthanasia in uk, believed that it leads to unemployment.
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? Minimum Wage Increase The minimum wage must be raised today because the cost of legal, . living has gone up drastically. Education is essential today, and that price tag has increased drastically in was oedipus written the past twenty years as well. People should not have to fight for is euthanasia equal pay for krashen input equal work. Companies should be forced to pay their workers what they deserve, and that is more than minimum wage is now. Legal. With our new technology and the technology in the future work is harder and more complicated. A minimum. Disability , Economy , Employment 914 Words | 4 Pages. Bisht;Ashish; 0822881 Minimum wage bill defeated in Parliament Introduction: The demand to raise New Zealand’s . minimum wage has decline. We live in a society where government has to make balance between employers and employees. Input. Workers want better paying job and at the same time employers want to control labour cost.
Therefor government put the floor of minimum wage “a minimum wage is the lowest wage that each employee can legally get from an employer” (exclusive papers). This is the lowest. Employment , Laborer , Labour economics 1068 Words | 4 Pages. why Minimum Wage should be increases. ? Name Why the Minimum Wage Should Be Raised Institution Affiliation Minimum wage is . the is euthanasia, minimum amount that an employer can pay their employee.
In the United States, many people are greatly affected by the federal minimum wage . Poverty continues to increase in the United States. Currently it is at seven dollars and twenty five cents which is too low in the current world today. The minimum wage is under debate if whether it should be increased. The debate has been brought about since. Basic income , Employment , Minimum wage 1175 Words | 6 Pages. Analysis on Minimum Wage in Indonesia “Comprehensive Negative Impacts Analysis of Minimum Wage for . DKI Jakarta” [pic] Andhika Putra Sudarman 1106055822 Fakultas Hukum Universitas Indonesia Depok “If the Minimum Wage of DKI Jakarta is set to Rp10.000.000,00, will everybody prosper?” Laborers in krashen DKI Jakarta demonstrating for an increase of is euthanasia legal in uk, minimum wage [][] is not a rare thing to see. The reason is because they can no longer meet their needs with their current wage . However, minimum wage has been. Employment , Employment compensation , Inflation 1297 Words | 4 Pages.
Persuasive Speech Draft (Minimum Wage) ?Kirsten Burroughs Professor Hart Persuasive Speech 04 December 2013 Intro: People of the middle class all know that the when written, . minimum wage of $7.25 is not sufficient to maintain a comfortable lifestyle. There is is euthanasia, considerable evidence to show that the current generations comfortable lifestyles require a more luxurious price for society book standard living. The cost of living over is euthanasia legal in uk the years has dramatically increased due to high consumer demands of products. Krashen Input Hypothesis. As that being said, $7.25 is just not enough for. Economics , Employment , Lifestyle 748 Words | 3 Pages. The Minimum - Wage Controversy The minimum wage sets a minimum on what employers are . Is Euthanasia Legal. allowed to pay workers.
In the United States, the federal minimum wage began in 1938 when the government required that covered workers in input covered industries be paid at is euthanasia legal in uk least 25 cents an was oedipus, hour. At that time, the minimum wage was about 40 percent of the is euthanasia, average manufacturing wage . The minimum wage was raised occasionally, and by 1996 it had reached $4.25 per hour, which was only 33 percent of the average manufacturing. Employment , Labor , Labor economics 2249 Words | 7 Pages. ? Tyler Spence Carriveau English 1301 November 5, 2013 Argument Rough Draft Do minimum wage workers deserve a better . paying wage ? Perhaps a wage that they are believed to be able to live off of? Will raising the minimum wage help those it really intends to? With unemployment pushing 8% nationwide and costs rising, nationwide people are pushing for minimum wage to be increased. The minimum wage was established by p john updike, Franklin Roosevelt as part of the New Deal in the 1930’s. The Fair Labor Standards. Earned Income Tax Credit , Employment , Fair Labor Standards Act 1384 Words | 4 Pages. article: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/13/us/politics/obama-pushes-for- increase -in-federal- minimum -wage.html?pagewanted=all_r=0 . In Uk. American workers will have a 1.75$ increase in their hourly wage by the end of 2015, as President Barack Obama recently called to raise the input, federal minimum wage from $7.25 an hour $9.00 an hour. This increase in the minimum wage of American citizen aims to help people with a low annual wage : cooks, employees of the janitorial industry and many others working these.
Barack Obama , Cycle of is euthanasia in uk, poverty , Employment 781 Words | 3 Pages. University Online Prof: Kerry Martin July 8, 2013 Cost of Minimum Wage Price floor is the . Updike. minimum price buyers are required to pay for is euthanasia a good or service. Now the question to brutus, find an answer to is how high we should raise minimum wages . Higher pay wages affect the price we pay at is euthanasia legal in uk the store, the amount of work hours, and the young unskilled worker. Updike. Some companies will compensate the higher wage by in uk, hiring a more skilled worker than paying for an unskilled worker, therefore the. Employment , Laborer , Minimum wage 1214 Words | 4 Pages. Econ 102 ? Research Paper The Minimum - Wage Controversy The Minimum - Wage Controversy When . receiving paychecks, most employees will agree that one can never be paid enough, however, their employers may disagree with that statement and believe that they are getting paid far greater than they are entitled to. A And P John Updike. Thus creating a conflict between minimum wages . Minimum wage is the least amount of money that an employer may pay their employees. Legal In Uk. The federal minimum wage that is experienced by many members.
Business , Employment , Minimum wage 1372 Words | 4 Pages. comes with a minimum wage hourly rate. Many teens taking on their first job are willing to take any pay and are therefore . satisfied with this rate. The current minimum wage in California is $9 and $7.25 across the United States. The minimum wage must be raised because the cost of living has gone up severely, the cost of education has increased, and it will save the sociocultural, government money. Since the cost of living has sky rocketed, it has become almost impossible to is euthanasia in uk, raise a family on Shakespeare Essay, a minimum wage job. A person. Earned Income Tax Credit , Education , Employment 873 Words | 4 Pages.
Minimum Wage - The Dubious Policy Minimum Wage The Questionable Policy As early as 4:00 am in . the dark and is euthanasia legal in uk, cold morning of winter, a few people walking on an wet sidewalk. Under chilling wind, those people walk to Twelfth Night, by William Shakespeare Essay, a large, old building. Inside the building, the people work for repetitive, backbreaking low waged jobs. In the same day, late at night, you can see similar scene: some people walking out of the legal, building under heavy humidity. I'm not one of those people, I don't know the feeling. Employment , Full-time , Labor economics 1283 Words | 4 Pages. Minimum wage is krashen, defined as the lowest possible income that an employer can legally pay an employee. This ensures that all people . Legal In Uk. are fairly paid and not defrauded by companies or businesses. Night,. Minimum wage is now a staple in 90 percent of countries in the world ( Minimum ). Even with these minimums , a person’s lifestyle is hard to is euthanasia legal in uk, maintain. Sustainability, in sociocultural theory my opinion, is the is euthanasia legal in uk, ability to keep or maintain a certain amount of physical or mental property.
In this light of sustainability, minimum wage is. Basic income , Employment , Employment compensation 1906 Words | 5 Pages. The concept of a minimum wage has been around for over a century; New Zealand was the first country to have a . minimum wage , enacted in 1894. Poets Book. The United States introduced minimum wage during the Great Depression in is euthanasia in uk 1938. Dead Poets Society Book. (Anderson) A minimum wage is a price floor; this sets a base line wage that companies have to pay their employees. Currently in the United States nearly 75 million people work minimum wage jobs. Is Euthanasia. (Goldstein) In 2004 the federal minimum wage was $5.15 an hour and only 12 states had. Employment , Employment compensation , Labor economics 1414 Words | 4 Pages. Minimum wages A minimum wage is the minimum amount of compensation an employee must . receive for poets book performing labour. In economic term, minimum wages is the price floor of the pay of the labour that set by the government. Is Euthanasia. The minimum wages rate normally was fixed by legal authority as such, it is brutus, illegal to is euthanasia, pay an employee less than the minimum wage . Our economic transformation goal is to make Malaysia a high-income nation by 2020, with a per capita income of US$15,000 a year, however there are still.
Employment , Inflation , Keynesian economics 2234 Words | 6 Pages. Yet Minimum wage has been a continuing matter since its first establishment, and it is p john, something everyone faces. Though, the . Is Euthanasia In Uk. recurring problem being brought up again and input hypothesis, again is the issue of being underpaid, and is the set minimum wage fair? And will raising minimum wage be more beneficial or harmful in the long run? Through its history can society better understand and find a solution to this problem. In Uk. Minimum wage was not instituted in the United States until the 1920s, and when was oedipus, the idea of wages being. Employment , Employment compensation , Labor economics 1943 Words | 5 Pages. Organization, Minimum wage defines as the lowest basic wage guaranteed by the law as an attempt to put a floor . under the wages of a particular subgroup of in uk, working population.
The progress of minimum wages policy was started after the brutus characteristics, National Wages Consultative Council Act gazette on is euthanasia legal in uk, 15 September 2011. This provision replaced the Salary Determination Council Act 1974 which is seen not effective to protect the workers welfare in general. The provision aimed to determine and standardize the wage structure. Economics , Employment , Labor economics 1748 Words | 5 Pages. Against Raising Minimum Wage Essay.
Against Raising Minimum Wage People everywhere are voicing out a and p john that we need to increase minimum . wage , again. They say that an increase will have a minor impact on jobs but there are no facts to back them up. Is Euthanasia. The impact of Twelfth Essay, raising minimum wage has been studied since the is euthanasia in uk, beginning, and a and p john, has been concluded that raising minimum wage hurts the poor, and helps the rich. Raising minimum wage takes away jobs; especially the low-skilled and young worker, keeps people on welfare, and is euthanasia, also encourages high school. 1999 albums , Business , Economics 1491 Words | 4 Pages. The concept of minimum wage is to ensure that employers do not pay wages below the mandated level. However this . Twelfth Night, By William Shakespeare. does not always happen instead this policy ends up hurting these workers and the economy in terms of in uk, lower job opportunities.
This is because the increase of when written, labor costs keeping all other things constant would eat into the net profits of the company. Therefore in order to offset the decrease in profits, the legal in uk, need for low skilled labor decreases and theory of development, companies look for higher productivity. Employment , Labor economics , Minimum wage 982 Words | 3 Pages. Minimum Wage A high school student that has a job or is thinking about getting a job knows what minimum . wage is legal in uk, because they know how little it is. Minimum wage is brutus characteristics, a set p/hr earnings an employer must pay his or her employees. Oregon is one of eighteen states in the U.S. that has set a higher minimum wage then the federal law of only $5.15 per/hr. Is Euthanasia Legal In Uk. For many years there has been a debate on Twelfth by William Shakespeare Essay, weather or not highirng the minimum wage helps or hurts the economy, in legal in uk most states with a higher minimum. Employment , Employment compensation , Minimum wage 1035 Words | 3 Pages. ? Should We Raise the Minimum Wage to the Average Pay Rate? April Alston Melisa Fennern Sharon Grady Nicole . Huffman Terika White University of a and p john updike, Phoenix BCOM/275 September 30, 2013 Michelle Maldonado “Should We Raise Minimum Wage to the Federal Average Pay Rate?” On the is euthanasia legal, United States Department of by William Shakespeare, Labor website it states that in 1938 it was decided that a federal minimum wage should be set. When it was set, it was set for the amount of $0.25 an is euthanasia, hour.
Now as of 2013. Employment , Inflation , Minimum wage 2004 Words | 6 Pages. Minimum wage across the United States is low. I am not sure how they come up with these hourly wages but these . minimum wages are not nothing anyone can live a normal life making. Brutus Characteristics. In the place where I live minimum wages is $7.25 per hour which is the in uk, state of Missouri. Our neighbor state of Kansas which is where I am from when written, is the same low pay of $7.25 per hour. Washington has the is euthanasia, highest rate I can tell of $9.04 per hour with Vermont in second with $8.46 per hour. $9.04 per hour is a lot better to. Employment , Employment compensation , Labor economics 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Argument for Increasing Minimum Wage.
Argumentative Essay March 31st 2015 Minimum Wage The minimum . wage must be raised because the dead poets book, cost of living has gone up considerably. Education is legal in uk, essential if one wishes to work, and the cost of was oedipus written, education has increased drastically in the past twenty years. Is Euthanasia. Companies should be required to pay workers what they deserve, and that is more than minimum wage is now. With our new technology and the technology in the future work is harder and more complicated. A minimum wage increase would. Education , Employee benefit , Employment 1006 Words | 4 Pages.
and evaluate the extent to which it achieves its purpose The minimum wage is the lowest rate at which a worker can be played. . Updike. There she minimum wage laws pegged to hourly, daily and is euthanasia legal, even monthly rates, although U.S. law is pegged to an hourly wage . Also, a minimum wage law usually makes it illegal for krashen a person to sell his labor for less than the minimum wage rate The general purpose of the minimum wage is to guarantee a living wage to all workers who work a standard period of time, whatever that. Employment , Employment compensation , Fair Labor Standards Act 2168 Words | 6 Pages. Minimum Wage Increase Has a Maximum Impact. good news for is euthanasia legal in uk the low-income workers and their families whenever the government increases the minimum wage . The . P John. United States Congress adopted the Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938. Congress created the minimum wage toward the is euthanasia in uk, end of the dead, Depression era to ensure a minimum standard of living necessary for health, efficiency, and general well-being for workers ( Wages ). The Fair Labor Standard Act establishes minimum wage , overtime pay, recordkeeping, and is euthanasia legal, child labor standards affecting full-time and.
Employment , Employment compensation , Labor economics 2048 Words | 6 Pages. Impact of book, Minimum Wage on Unemployement. unambiguously conclude that a minimum wage increase will increase unemployment levels”. Legal In Uk. Discuss. . The essay is outline as follows. Firstly, I would define some of the key terms.
Secondly, I would outline the reasons for Night, Shakespeare Essay the statement. Lastly, I would provide the concluding remarks. Unemployment is when those members of the labour force who are willing and able to work cannot find a job. Minimum Wage In a perfectly competitive labour market, the legal in uk, equilibrium wage should be W1, where labour. Economics , Employment , Labor economics 739 Words | 3 Pages. Minimum Wage Fireworks were lit once the announcement surfaced the internet that President Obama stated, “Tonight, let's declare . that in the wealthiest nation on Earth, no one who works full-time should have to live in Twelfth by William Essay poverty.” (Obama) He was looking to in uk, raise minimum wage during his State of the poets society book, Union address. Is Euthanasia. The average middle class person would be elated that minimum wage was going to brutus, rise. The amount of increase would depend on your location. I was one of is euthanasia legal in uk, those people would were excited.
Dollar , Employment , Fast food 1207 Words | 3 Pages. The role of poets society, minimum wages in the South African economy and the potential socio-economic consequences Abstract . Is Euthanasia Legal In Uk. ------------------------------------------------- From an examination of South Africa’s current agricultural minimum wage and theory of development, unemployment level as a case study. It was concluded that an increase in the agricultural minimum wage , would not provide a solution to is euthanasia, South Africa’s unemployment rate and standard of living. But rather that an enrichment of South Africa’s labour force through. Economics , Employment , Inflation 1633 Words | 5 Pages. During 2014’s annual State of the Union address, President Obama aggressively addressed the age-old debate of raising the minimum . wage . The President has urged legislators to p john updike, raise the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour to fight the ongoing battle of legal in uk, class inequality. Subsequently, Massachusetts legislators proposed a bill that would incrementally raise the dead poets, state minimum wage to $10.50 over the next two years just weeks after the President’s address. In Uk. The prospects of krashen input hypothesis, this proposed legislation.
Economics , Employment , Labor economics 1680 Words | 5 Pages. Minimum Wage Legislation Assignment. Word count: 1302 Minimum Wage Legislation Assignment Minimum Wage . Legislation Assignment Introduction: The mitigation of poverty is increasingly seen as a primary economic objective. Is Euthanasia. Poverty creates many economic costs in terms of the opportunity cost of lost output, the Essay, cost of welfare provision associated with exclusion from normal economic activity. It can be argued that one of the roles of government is to reduce poverty, and the minimum wage law is a in a typical way. Economics , Employment , Laborer 1413 Words | 5 Pages.
Causal Analysis Essay What are three effects of raising the federal minimum wage? Causal Analysis Essay Topic 3. Legal In Uk. What are three effects of raising the federal minimum wage ? You can analyze three . distinct effects or you can utilize the p john updike, diagram at the bottom of page 260, showing X leads to Y leads to Z. Make sure you use words from the Vocabulary of in uk, Causal Analysis in a and p john updike your thesis, and that you use at least 10 more of legal, these words in brutus your essay . Underline every word you use from the Vocabulary of Causal Analysis. Legal In Uk. Avoid the a and updike, _post hoc ergo propter hoc_ fallacy by specifying the causal. Employee benefit , Employment , Hardworking families 733 Words | 3 Pages. ?Nowadays, the minimum wage legislation has been an is euthanasia legal in uk, increase in very many countries (Exclusivepapers, n.d.). . According to Law Pay Commission (2006), a minimum wage is the society, lowest wage that each employee can legally get from an is euthanasia in uk, employer in hourly, daily or monthly basis. This is the lowest amount at which workers can sell their labour. By each country independently having their laws, there has different opinions regarding the merits and the demerits of the minimum wage legislation. This essay will illustrate. Economics , Employment , Minimum wage 1548 Words | 4 Pages. Essay topic: Should the Hong Kong government implement a minimum wage policy? Cho Mee Ji 2010524339 CAES 1906 - . I Hong Kong is hypothesis, one of the world’s most prosperous and financially wealthy cities.
However, despite the wealthy background, the is euthanasia, government has serious economic concerns over the high levels of poverty and income inequality in characteristics Hong Kong (“The Situation of Poverty”, 2003). A study by the Hong Kong Council (2009) has reported that more than 17% of Hong Kong residents or 1.2 million people. Employment , Living wage , Minimum wage 1021 Words | 3 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Minimum Wage. This essay will give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the minimum wage . There are many different . opinions about whether a national minimum wage is in uk, a good or a bad thing for our economy and people individually and by looking into various different resources and researching thoroughly, a conclusion will be drawn to hopefully provide a fair and dead poets, unbiased review. In the UK, there are 3 different bands when it comes to legal in uk, minimum wage , if you are between 16 and 17 years old you are entitled. Basic income , Employment , Jobseeker's Allowance 2238 Words | 5 Pages. ? Minimum wage in Nepalese Labor Market Minimum wage is the price floor imposed by the government . for the welfare of krashen input, labor. Price floor is the in uk, legal minimum on Night, by William Essay, the price at legal which a good can be sold. It is an attempt by the government to maintain prices at other than equilibrium levels. When a government imposes a price floor, there will be two cases.
One the price floor is Twelfth Shakespeare, not binding if the price floor is maintained below equilibrium price level. Legal. In this case, the market forces naturally move. Consumer price index , Employment , Inflation 1459 Words | 6 Pages. Minimum Wage Effects: Beneficial or Hindrance? Memo Minimum Wage effects: Beneficial or Hindrance? In the United States, workers are covered by written, the Federal . Legal. Government when it comes to the worth of one’s labor.
This is done through laws governing the minimal amount of pay per hour of labor. This law is a and p john, called the Fair Labor Standard Act (FSLA). Currently, the minimum wage is set at $7.25. This is much higher than previous amounts. During economically difficult times, the Federal Government may deem it necessary to raise the minimum wage. Affect , Effect , Employment 805 Words | 3 Pages. Minimum wage must be raised for us to legal in uk, survive in our very modern society.
The minimum wage must be . raised today because the cost of by William Shakespeare Essay, living has gone up drastically. Legal In Uk. Education is essential today, and that price tag has increased drastically in of development the past twenty years as well. People should not have to fight for legal in uk equal pay for equal work. Companies should be forced to pay their workers what they deserve, and that is more than minimum wage is now. With our new technology and a and, the technology in the future. Education , Employee benefit , Employment 975 Words | 3 Pages. Minimum Wage Policy and the influence i. 1/5 Minimum Wage Policy and the influence it has on the economy As wage is one of the key elements to which people . attach greatest importance when finding and choosing a job, wage policies of a country can do a lot more to the economy of the society in many aspects such as employment, productivity, inflation than we people often thinks they can. Every country has its own wage policies, which is due to is euthanasia legal, their political structure and hypothesis, many more other factors. Different wage policies have different influence. Economics , Employment , Inflation 1596 Words | 5 Pages.
Exploratory Essay: Is the Minimum Wage High Enough. If you have ever worked for minimum wage , I am sure you have felt as if your time was worthless. Is Euthanasia. After taxes you brought home . next to krashen input hypothesis, nothing, no matter how often you worked. That's at least how I felt when I worked for minimum wage . In high school I had nothing to pay for but a cell phone. I worked for minimum wage and it seemed like I barely could afford it.
I had basically no bills and I worked around twenty hours a week, and is euthanasia legal in uk, it seemed like I couldn't save any money. I always wondered how my coworkers. Household income in the United States , Inflation , Middle class 1694 Words | 4 Pages. Minimum Wage ; Does It Work? Phillip Fraiser Kaplan University BU-224 Dr. Heather Luea May 13, 2011 . Early attempts by labor unions to create a mandatory minimum wage were ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court on the grounds that they restricted the worker's right to set the price for his own labor. This allowed employers to continue exploiting their workers through the Great Depression of the 1930s, when incredible demand for a and updike jobs caused wages to drop even.
Employment , Labor economics , Minimum wage 1303 Words | 4 Pages. Effect of Minimum Wage on Demand and Supply. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In order to safeguard specific workers in . Is Euthanasia. low-paid, susceptible employments the minimum wage policy had been implemented by the South African government to updike, provide assurance to these workers of a basic subsistence income. In hindsight the government saw the wage ‘floor’ as a tool to efficiently support the is euthanasia, working poor and of development, eradicate their poverty while facilitating the rearrangement of income in an uneven society. In light. Agricultural economics , Agriculture , Economics 2052 Words | 5 Pages. the minimum wage controversy has been a topic of debate to whether it produces positive or negative effects on society. To begin . with, the need for a country to have a minimum wage law was stressed by the international labour organization in 1928. Is Euthanasia Legal. Twenty years later, Australia and New Zealand passed the act and we have been using the when was oedipus written, term “ minimum wage law” ever since. At this point more than 90% of all countries have some kind of legal in uk, minimum wage legislation.
Supporters of the minimum wage say that. Economics , Employment , Labor economics 876 Words | 3 Pages. realize that it’s just the minimum pay. This is just one of many working class citizen’s stories right now living in the United States, with . job cuts people citizens are willing to a and p john updike, take whatever jobs are available, to is euthanasia, sustain a suitable life style for them. Today I am going to talk to your briefly about the history of by William Shakespeare Essay, minimum wage , why it should be increased, how it can help the economy , the benefits of increasing minimum wage , what states have recently increased minimum wage , how the government is. Employment , Employment compensation , Living wage 1789 Words | 6 Pages.
The Minimum Wage Debate Business Ethics: The Minimum Wage Debate Minimum . wage is defined as the lowest amount that employers can legally pay their workers per hour of labor. In Uk. Most states have laws in place to enforce the Twelfth Shakespeare, minimum wage ; those that do not are subject to the federal minimum wage of in uk, $7.25. There are both benefits and drawbacks of this type of policy. Many supporters of a minimum wage believe it increases the standard of living and reduced poverty. Those that oppose a minimum wage.
Basic income , Earned Income Tax Credit , Employment 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Should the Minimum Wage Be Raised? Swint ENC1102 Sec 90 13 October 2014 Minimum Wage ; Should it be raised? In the economy were in today, people, businesses and . politicians are trying to figure out a solution to fix the problem that we found ourselves in. One of those solutions was simply to raise the minimum wage , some have agreed, others haven't. The federal minimum wage shouldn't be raised any higher then what it already is for several valid reasons. Occupations that pay only the minimum wage are meant to input hypothesis, lead on to lifetime careers. Employee benefit , Employment , Labor economics 1122 Words | 5 Pages. Advantages of is euthanasia legal in uk, Minimum Wage • Reduce the theory, income gap between poor and rich Minimum wage . helps to close the income gap between the rich and poor.
Although the legal, society still has a significant difference, the minimum wage at least puts a floor in dead society book the gap so it does not develop wider. Narrowing this gap is important to maintaining a population with equal freedoms. In the short term, minimum wage is not effective to reduce the income gap between poor and rich. But in the long term. Employment , Labor economics , Minimum wage 827 Words | 4 Pages. Raising Minimum Wages In any countries in the world, the poverty is an unsolvable problem.
What politicians are able to do is . Is Euthanasia. just reduce the percentage of the poverty population in their country. The most often used means to a and updike, solve this problem is raising the is euthanasia legal, minimum wage by change the law of that country. However, only giving their citizens more money will not solve the poverty. Twelfth Night, By William Essay. The inflation and unemployment rate are always appear with the raising minimum wages . Legal. The method of krashen input hypothesis, raising minimum wages. Employment , Laborer , Minimum wage 1779 Words | 7 Pages. Abolishing the Minimum Wage Many Americans think of the minimum wage as a means of raising the . income of the working people. However, the minimum wage is not the is euthanasia, best way to brutus characteristics, combat poverty.
In fact, the minimum wage does more harm than good. The list of its negative effects is a long one: it causes unemployment; it prevents unskilled workers from getting the on-the-job training they need; it encourages teenagers to is euthanasia legal, drop out of school; it promotes the hiring of illegal aliens; and it increases welfare. Earned Income Tax Credit , Employment , Minimum wage 1822 Words | 6 Pages.
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The Law and Assisted Suicide/Euthanasia in the UK - InBrief co uk
aix resume websphere Q1.What is MQ and what does it do? Ans. Is Euthanasia! MQ stands for brutus characteristics MESSAGE QUEUEING. WebSphere MQ allows application programs to use message queuing to participate in message-driven processing. Application programs can communicate across different platforms by using the appropriate message queuing software products. Q2.What is Message driven process? Ans . When messages arrive on a queue, they can automatically start an application using triggering . Legal! If necessary, the applications can be stopped when the message (or messages) have been processed. Q3.What are advantages of the MQ? Ans.
1. Integration. 3. Assured Delivery. Q4.How does it support the Integration? Ans . Because the MQ is independent of the Operating System you use i.e. it may be Windows, Solaris,AIX.It is independent of the protocol (i.e. When Was Oedipus Written! TCP/IP, LU6.2, SNA, NetBIOS, UDP).It is legal not required that both the sender and a and p john updike, receiver should be running on legal, the same platform. 5. What is Night, Shakespeare Essay Asynchrony?
Ans. With message queuing, the legal, exchange of messages between the sending and dead poets society book, receiving programs is independent of time. This means that the legal, sending and receiving application programs are decoupled; the sender can continue processing without having to wait for the receiver to acknowledge receipt of the message. The target application does not even have to be running when the message is sent. Poets! It can retrieve the message after it is has been started. Q6.what is a Message and what does it contain? Ans: A message is a string of bytes that is meaningful to the applications that use it. Messages are used to transfer information from one application program to another (or between different parts of the same application). Is Euthanasia Legal! The applications can be running on brutus characteristics, the same platform, or on is euthanasia legal in uk, different platforms. Brutus Characteristics! WebSphere MQ messages have two parts: 1. The application data . The content and structure of the application data is defined by the application programs that use it. 2. Legal In Uk! A message descriptor . The message descriptor identifies the message and contains additional control information, such as the type of message and the priority assigned to the message by the sending application.
WebSphere MQ defines the format of the message descriptor. Characteristics! Q7.What is the Max Length of the message does MQ support/ Ans: The default maximum message length is 4 MB , although you can increase this to is euthanasia legal, a maximum length of poets society 100 MB (where 1 MB equals 1 048 576 bytes). Ans: A queue is a data structure used to store messages. A queue manager owns each queue. The queue manager is in uk responsible for maintaining the queues it owns, and for storing all the messages it receives onto the appropriate queues.
Q9.What are the Different Types Of Queues? Ans: Queues can be characterized by the way they are created: 1. Predefined queues are created by an administrator using the written, appropriate MQSC or PCF commands. Predefined queues are permanent; they exist independently of the applications that use them and survive Web Sphere MQ restarts. 2 Dynamic queues are created when an application issues an MQOPEN request specifying the name of a model queue . The queue created is based on is euthanasia, a template queue definition , which is called a model queue. Q10.How does an application sends and receives messages from the Queues? Ans: Application programs send and receive messages using MQI calls. MQOPEN: It is used to Night, by William Shakespeare Essay, open the Require Queue. MQPUT: It is used to PUT the message in to the Required Queue. MQGET: It is used to get the message from the required Queue. MQCONNX: This command used to connect to the QueueManager. MQPUT1: It performs the putting, browsing and getting application at a time on a single queue.
MQCLOSE: It closes the connection with the Queue. MQDISC: This is used to disconnect the application with the Queuemanager. 11.What is the Algorithm followed in retrieving the Messages from the Queue? Ans: 1.First-in-first-out (FIFO). 2.Message priority, as defined in the message descriptor.
Messages that have the same priority are retrieved on a FIFO basis. 3. A program request for a specific message. Q12.What are the Objects used in Web sphere MQ? Ans: 1. Queue Manager 2. Queues. Legal In Uk! 3. Channels 4. Processes 5. Name lists . Theory Of Development! Q13.Wbat is the Default port number for MQ Queue Manager?
Q14.Mention the Different Types of MQ Queues? Ans: There are four types of Queues Available in in uk, Web sphere MQ. Local queue object : A local queue object identifies a local queue belonging to krashen, the queue manager to which the application is connected. All queues are local queues in the sense that each queue belongs to a queue manager and, for that queue manager; the queue is a local queue. Remote queue object : A remote queue object identifies a queue belonging to another queue manager .This queue must be defined as a local queue to that queue manager.The information you specify when you define a remote queue object allows the local queue manager to find the in uk, remote queue manager, so that any messages destined for the remote queue go to the correct queue manager. Krashen Hypothesis! Alias queue object An alias queue allows applications to access a queue by referring to it indirectly in MQI calls. When an alias queue name is used in an MQI call, the name is resolved to the name of either a local or a remote queue at is euthanasia in uk, run time. This allows you to Twelfth Shakespeare, change the is euthanasia, queues that applications use without changing the application in any way; you merely change the alias queue definition to reflect the by William, name of the new queue to legal in uk, which the Shakespeare, alias resolves. An alias queue is not a queue, but an object that you can use to is euthanasia in uk, access another queue. Model queue object A model queue defines a set of queue attributes that are used as a template for creating a dynamic queue.
Q15.How can U define Queues in MQ? Ans: Queues are defined to Web Sphere MQ using: 1. The MQSC command DEFINE. 2. The PCF Create Queue command. Q16.What is Transmission Queue? Ans: Transmission queues are queues that temporarily store messages that are destined for a remote queue manager.
You must define at least one transmission queue for each remote queue manager to which the local queue manager is to krashen hypothesis, send messages directly. Q17.What is Initiation Queues? Ans: Initiation queues are queues that are used in triggering. A queue manager puts a trigger message on an initiation queue when a trigger event occurs. A trigger event is legal a logical combination of conditions that is detected by a and, a queue manager. Legal! Q18.What is Dead Letter Queue? Ans: A dead-letter (undelivered-message) queue is a queue that stores messages that cannot be routed to Night,, their correct destinations. This occurs when, for example, the destination queue is full. The supplied dead-letter queue is called SYSTEM.DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE. For distributed queuing, define a dead-letter queue on each queue manager involved. Q19.What is Process Definition and what are the is euthanasia legal in uk, attributes does it contain?
Ans: A process definition object defines an application that starts in response to a trigger event on a WebSphere MQ queue manager. When Was Oedipus Written! The process definition attributes include the application ID , the application type , and data specific to the application. Q20 . Legal In Uk! What is channel and mention different types of channels in MQ? Ans: Channels are objects that provide a communication path from one queue manager to Twelfth Night,, another. Channels are used in distributed queuing to move messages from one queue manager to another. They shield applications from the underlying communications protocols. The queue managers might exist on in uk, the same, or different, platforms. Different types of Channels: 1. Sender-Receiver Channels. 2. Requester-Server Channels. 3. Client Connection channels.
4. Server Connection Channels. Krashen! 5. Cluster Sender. 6. Cluster Receiver Channels. Q21What is Cluster? Ans: A cluster is a group of queue managers set up in such a way that the queue managers can communicate directly with one another over a single network, without the need for transmission queue, channel, and remote queue definitions. Q22.What is MQ Client? Ans: A Web Sphere MQ client is a component that allows an application running on a system to issue MQI calls to a queue manager running on another system. Legal In Uk! The output from the call is sent back to the client, which passes it back to the application. Q23.What is MQ Server? Ans: A Web Sphere MQ server is a queue manager that provides queuing services to one or more clients. All the Web Sphere MQ objects, for example queues, exist only on the queue manager machine (the Web Sphere MQ server machine), and not on the client.
A Web Sphere MQ server can also support local Web Sphere MQ. Q24.What are commands used for creating the Queue manager from the Command prompt? Ans : crtmqm -q -d MY.DEFAULT.XMIT.QUEUE -u DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE QM1. Here -q used to define the Queue manager QM1 as a Default Queue manager. Dead Poets Society! -d is used to define the default transmission Queue -u is used to define the default dead letter queue. Q25.How can U make the is euthanasia, existing Queue Manager as an default Queue Manager? Ans: On Windows systems, use the krashen input hypothesis, Web Sphere MQ Services snap-in to display the properties of the queue manager, and check the Make queue manager the default box. You need to is euthanasia, stop and book, restart the queue manager for the change to take effect.
Q26.Where are the backup files are present after creating the is euthanasia in uk, Queue Manager? Ans: Windows systems : If you use Web Sphere MQ for Windows NT and Windows 2000, configuration information is stored in the Windows Registry. UNIX Systems : 1. Dead Poets Book! When you install the product, the in uk, Web Sphere MQ configuration file (mqs.ini) is created. It contains a list of characteristics queue managers that is updated each time you create or delete a queue manager. There is one mqs.ini file per node. 2. Legal! When you create a new queue manager, a new queue manager configuration file (qm.ini) is automatically created. This contains configuration parameters for the queue manager.
Q27.What is the command used for starting the Queue Manager? Ans: strmqm QMName. Q28.What is the brutus characteristics, command used for stopping the Queue manager? Ans: endmqm -w QMName. The command waits until all applications have stopped and is euthanasia legal in uk, the queue manager has ended. This type of shutdown does not wait for applications to disconnect from the theory of development, queue manager. Q29.What is the command used to delete the QueueManager? Ans: dltmqm QMName. Q30.How can a Client connect to a Remote Server?
Ans: The client can establish a connect with the Server using the is euthanasia legal in uk, command. Night, Shakespeare! SET MQSERVER=SYSTEM.ADMIN.SVRCONN/TCP/IPADDRESS (PORT NO) Here SYSTEM.ADMIN.SVRCONN is the in uk, Default server connection channel used to connect to brutus characteristics, the server TCP is the legal, protocol used. IPADDRESS is the IP address of the server PORT : Port no is the no on which the QueueManager is running. Q33.What does MQSC Commands are used for? Ans: You can use MQSC commands to manage queue manager objects, including the queue manager itself, clusters, channels, queues, namelists, process definitions, and authentication information objects. Q34.Is the MQSC attributes are Case sensitive? Ans: MQSC commands, including their attributes, can be written in uppercase or lowercase. Object names in dead poets society book, MQSC commands are folded to uppercase (that is, QUEUE and queue are not differentiated), unless the names are enclosed within single quotation marks. If quotation marks are not used, the object is processed with a name in uppercase. Q35.How can we write the MQSC commands that have too many parameters/ Ans: For commands that have too many parameters to fit on one line, use continuation characters to is euthanasia, indicate that a command is continued on the following line: 1. A minus sign ( ) indicates that the command is to be continued from the start of brutus _ the is euthanasia legal in uk, following line. 2. A plus sign (+) indicates that the command is to be continued from the first nonblank character on brutus characteristics, the following line.
Q36.What is the Max size that Queues support in is euthanasia, MQ. Twelfth Shakespeare Essay! Ans. They support around 2GB of legal Size. Q37.How can u create a Transmission Queue from a local Queue? Ans.
Change the usage attribute from normal to Transmission. Q38.Define a Local Queue LQ using the p john updike, MQSC Commands in the QM QM1. Ans: runmqsc QM1. Define qlocal (LQ) Q39.Display the attributes of the Queue Manager QM1? Ans: runmqsc QM1. Q40.What is Triggering? Ans: Web Sphere MQ enables you to start an application automatically when certain conditions on a queue are met. For example, you might want to start an application when the number of messages on a queue reaches a specified number. This facility is called triggering.
Q41.Explain the different types of Triggering? Ans: There are three types of triggering. 1. FIRST: 2. EVERY 3. DEPTH. Q42.What is the Different Logging Methods available? Ans: There are two different types available. Legal! 1. Circular : The circular logging is used for restart recovery. It is the default logging method. When Written! Circular is used in Development and Testing Queues.
Circular logging keeps all restart Data in a ring of log files. Logging fills the first file in the ring, then moves on to the and in uk, so on, until all the files are full. It then goes back to the first file in the ring and starts This continues as long as the sociocultural theory of development, product is in use, and has the advantage that you never run out of in uk log files. 2. Linear : Linear logging gives you both restart recovery and media recovery. Hypothesis! It is used in Production.
Linear logging keeps the log data in a continuous Sequence of in uk files. A And! Space is not reused, so you can always retrieve any record logged from the time that the queue manager was created. As disk space is finite, you might have to think about some form of archiving. It is an administrative task to manage your disk space for the log, reusing Or extending the existing space as necessary. Is Euthanasia In Uk! Q43.What is the Default location where the logs are stored and mention the default sizes? Ans: Default location: Windows : C:Program FilesIBMWebSphere MQlogqmgr.
Q44.What is the log file size? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ for Windows NT and Win 2000, the minimum value is 32, and Twelfth Night, Essay, the maximum is 16 384. The default value is is euthanasia legal in uk 256, giving a default log size of 1 MB. In Web Sphere MQ for UNIX systems, the minimum value is dead society 64, and legal in uk, the maximum is 16 384. The default value is 1024, giving a default log size of poets society 4 MB.
Q45 what is the number for in uk log primary and secondary file allocated? Ans: Primary log files: The number of input primary log files to be allocated. The default value is 3, the minimum is 2, and the maximum is 62. Legal! Secondary log files: The number of secondary log files to be allocated. The default value is 2, the minimum is 1, and the maximum is 61. Q46.What is the hypothesis, difference between Persistent and Non Persistent Messages? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ, messages can be either persistent or non persistent. Persistent messages are logged and can be recovered in the event of a WebSphere MQ failure. Thus, persistent messages are guaranteed to be delivered once and only once. Is Euthanasia! Nonpersistent messages are not logged. Web Sphere still guarantees to krashen hypothesis, deliver them not more than once, but it does not promise to deliver them once.
Q47.What is the effect of using Persistant messages? Ans: Persistent messages are usually logged. Logging messages reduces the performance of your application, so use persistent messages for in uk essential data only. If the data in a message can be discarded if the queue manager stops or fails, use a nonpersistent message. Q48.What is Intercommunication? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ, intercommunication means sending messages from one Queue manager to another. The receiving queue manager could be on the same machine or another; nearby or on the other side of the world. It could be running on the same platform as the local queue manager, or could be on any of the platforms supported by Web Sphere MQ. This is called a distributed environment . Web Sphere MQ handles communication in a distributed environment such as this using Distributed Queue Management (DQM). The local queue manager is sometimes called the source queue manager and the remote queue manager is sometimes called the target queue manager or the partner queue manager.
Q49.What is the Objects required for the DQM? Ans: On source QueueManager: 1. Transmission Queue 2. Remote queue definition. Krashen! 3. Dead Letter Queue(recommended) 4. Legal! Sender Channel. On Target Queue Manager. 1. Local Queue 2. Dead Letter Queue 3. Receiver Channel 4.Listenr. Shakespeare Essay! ***.The sender and receiver channels names should be same. Q50.What is the attribute used to by the is euthanasia in uk, Message length? Q51.What is Message Channel agent (MCA)? Ans: A message channel agent (MCA) is a program that controls the sending and receiving of messages. There is one message channel agent at each end of a channel. One MCA takes messages from the transmission queue and puts them on the communication link.
The other MCA receives messages and delivers them onto a queue on the remote queue manager. A message channel agent is hypothesis called a caller MCA if it initiated the in uk, communication; otherwise it is brutus characteristics called a responder MCA . Q52.What is Channel initiators and Listeners? Ans: A channel initiator acts as a trigger monitor for sender channels, because a transmission queue may be defined as a triggered queue. When a message arrives on a transmission queue that satisfies the triggering criteria for that queue, a message is sent to the initiation queue, triggering the channel initiator to in uk, start the. Krashen Input Hypothesis! appropriate sender channel. You can also start server channels in this way if you specified the connection name of the legal in uk, partner in the channel definition. This means that channels can be started automatically, based upon messages arriving on the appropriate transmission queue. You need a channel listener program to start receiving (responder) MCAs. Responder MCAs are started in response to a startup request from the was oedipus written, caller MCA; the channel listener detects incoming network requests and starts the associated channel.
Q53.What are attributes required for the Sender Channel? Ans: 1. The Name of the Channel. 2. The Connection name. In Uk! 3. Transmission Queue Name. Q54.What are the attributes required for the Remote Queue Definition?
Ans: 1.Name of the Queue 2. Transmission Queue Name. 3. Remote QueueManager name 4. Remote Local Queue Name. Q55.Mention the p john updike, No of is euthanasia in uk Characters required for krashen hypothesis creating names of the MQ objects? Ans: For MQ Channels it is 20 Characters. For Remaining objects it is 48 characters. Is Euthanasia Legal! Q56.What is the command used for the running trigger monitor?
Ans: Server side: runmqtrm -m QMName -q Initiation QueueName. Night, Shakespeare! Client side: runmqtmc -m QMName -q Initiation QueueName. Q57.What is the command used for is euthanasia legal creating the listener? Ans: crtmqlsr -t tcp -m QMNAME -p portno. Q58.What is the commands used for Shakespeare running listener? Ans: runmqlsr -t tcp -m QMNAME -p portno. Q59.What is command used to in uk, perform task on theory of development, the MQ services? Q60.What are commands used on is euthanasia legal in uk, the Command server? Ans: 1. strmqcsv : to start the command server.
2. Brutus! dspmqcsv : to display the command server. 3. endmqcsv : To end the command server. Q61.Is there is any chance for is euthanasia in uk the Message loss? Ans: If the target queuemanager doesn.t contain the dead letter queue defined and if the messages are running on a fast channel and of non persistant,Then there is a chance of the message loss. Q62.What is the use of clustering? Ans.
Due to the use of clustering. 1. The Administrator tasks can be reduced. 2. Sociocultural! We can achieve the Workload balance. Q63.How many no Full Repository Queue Managers are required for creating a cluster. What is the is euthanasia legal in uk, difference between full and hypothesis, partial repositories? Ans: In each cluster you must select at is euthanasia in uk, least one, preferably two, or possibly more of the queue managers to hold full repositories. A cluster can work quite adequately with only one full repository but using two improves availability.
Every cluster has at least one (preferably two) queue managers holding full repositories of information about the sociocultural theory of development, queue managers, queues, and channels in is euthanasia, a cluster. These repositories also contain requests from the sociocultural theory, other queue managers in the cluster for updates to the information. The other queue managers each hold a partial repository, containing information about the subset of queues and queue managers with which they need to communicate. Q64.Where does the information about the messages of a QueueManager are stored when they are in cluster? Ans: Each queue manager stores its repository information in messages on a queue called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.REPOSITORY.QUEUE . The queue managers exchange repository information in messages on a queue called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.COMMAND.QUEUE . Q65.What is the command that is used to provide authorization for the clients? Ans : setmqaut -m QMName -t queue -n Queuename -p GUEST +all. Q66. What are the common errors u get in is euthanasia, DQM? Ans: mqrc 2058: MQRC_Q_MGR_NAME_ERROR. Mqrc 2059: MQRC_Q_MGR_NOT_AVAILABLE. Twelfth Night,! Mqrc 2033: MQRC_NO_MSG_AVAILABLE.
Mqrc 2085: MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_NAME. Mqrc 2009: MQRC_CONNECTION_BROKEN. Mqrc 2043: MQRC_OBJECT_TYPE_ERROR. Mqrc 2086: MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_Q_MGR. Mqrc 2035: MQRC_NOT_AUTHORIZED. Q67.What are different modes in which a application can connect to a Queuemanager?
Ans: 1.Binding mode: In binding mode, also known as server connection, the is euthanasia legal in uk, communication to the queue manager utilizes inter-process communications. One of the key factors that should be kept in mind is that binding mode is available only to programs running on the MQSeries server that hosts the dead poets book, queue manager. A program using binding mode will not run from an MQSeries client machine. Binding mode is a fast and efficient way to interact with MQSeries. Certain Facilities, such as XA transaction co-ordination by legal in uk, queue manager, are available only in sociocultural theory of development, binding mode.
2. Client Connection: Client connection uses a TCP/IP connection to the MQSeries Server and enables communications with the queue manager. Programs using client connections can run on an MQSeries client machine as well as on an MQSeries server machine. Client connections use client channels on the queue manager to communicate with the queue manager. Is Euthanasia Legal In Uk! The client connection does not support XA transaction coordination by the queue manager. Q68.What are the different types of sociocultural theory of development messaging systems used by legal in uk, JMS? Ans: JMS applications use either the when written, point-to-point (PTP) or publish/subscribe style of messaging. Point-to-Point : Point-to-point messaging involves working with queues of messages. Is Euthanasia Legal! The sender sends messages to a specific queue to be consumed normally by a single receiver. In point-to-point communication, a message has at when was oedipus, most one recipient.
A sending client addresses the message to the queue that holds the messages for the intended (receiving) client. Publish/Subscribe: In contrast to the point-to-point model of communication, the publish/subscribe model enables the delivery of a message to is euthanasia legal in uk, multiple recipients. A sending client addresses, or publishes, the message to a topic to which multiple clients can be subscribed. There can be multiple publishers, as well as subscribers, to a topic. Q69.What are different Channel status? Ans: Channel Status: 2.1). Stopped 2.2). Starting 2.3). Retrying.
2.4.1). P John! Initializing 2.4.2). Binding 2.4.3). Requesting. 2.4.4). Running 2.4.5). Paused 2.4.6). Stopping. Q70.Is It Possible to use one transmission Queue for the multiple message channels? Ans: It is possible to define more than one channel per transmission queue, but only one of these channels can be active at any one time. Legal! This is recommended for the provision of alternative routes between queue managers for traffic balancing and link failure corrective action.
A transmission queue cannot be used by another channel if the previous channel to use it terminated leaving a batch of of development messages in-doubt at the sending end. Q71.What is BATCH HEARTBEAT INTERVAL? Ans: The batch heartbeat interval allows a sending channel to verify that the receiving channel is still active just before committing a batch of messages, so that if the in uk, receiving channel is not active, the batch can be backed out rather than becoming in-doubt, as would otherwise be the case. By backing out the when was oedipus written, batch, the. messages remain available for processing so they could, for example, be redirected to another channel. Q72.What is Keep Alive Interval? Ans: The Keep Alive Interval parameter is used to specify a time-out value for a channel. The Keep Alive Interval parameter is a value passed to the communications stack specifying the Keep Alive timing for legal the channel. It allows you to specify a different keep alive value for each channel. The value indicates a time, in seconds, and sociocultural of development, must be in is euthanasia in uk, the range 0 to 99999. Q73.What is LONG Retry count? Ans: Specify the maximum number of p john updike times that the channel is to try allocating a session to its partner.
If the initial allocation attempt fails, the short retry count number is decremented and the channel retries the remaining number of times. Q74.What is the command used to test whether the channel is active or not? Ping channel (channel name). Q75. What are the commands that are used on client side for is euthanasia putting and getting messages from a queue? Ans: amqsputc -q Queue name -m QMName. amqsgetc -q Queue name -m QMName. Q76.What is the Default max Queue depth? Q77.What are the administrative commands that are used in Publish and Subscribe? Ans: The strmqbrk command is Twelfth Night, used to start a broker. In Uk! The first time this command is run on a queue manager, all the relevant MQSeries objects are automatically created. strmqbrk -m MYQMGRNAME. The dspmqbrk command is used to check the status of the broker.
Possible states are: starting, running, stopping, quiescing, not active and ended abnormally. Brutus! dspmqbrk -m MYQMGRNAME. Is Euthanasia! The endmqbrk command is used to stop a broker. There are two options: -c requests a controlled shutdown (default), -i requests an sociocultural theory of development, immediate shutdown. endmqbrk -i -m MYQMGRNAME. Q78.What is the algorithm that is legal in uk followed by was oedipus, MQ in is euthanasia, clustering? Ans: WebSphere MQ uses a workload management algorithm that uses a round-robin routine to select an available queue manager to route a message to. Q79.What is multiple hoping? Ans: If there is no direct communication link between the source queue manager and the target queue manager, it is possible to pass through one or more intermediate queue managers on the way to the target queue manager.
This is known as a multi-hop. Q80.What are the platform does MQ Client support? Ans : WebSphere MQ for AIX. WebSphere MQ for HP-UX. WebSphere MQ for iSeries. WebSphere MQ for Solaris. WebSphere MQ for Windows. WebSphere MQ for z/OS. Night, Shakespeare! Q81.What are the Hardware requirements for WebSphere MQ client? Ans: A WebSphere MQ client can run on Windows on any Intel 486 processor based IBM PC machine or equivalent that can run Windows 98 or Windows NT® 4.0.
There must be enough random access memory (RAM) and disk storage for the programming prerequisites (below), the WebSphere MQ client, the access methods, and the application programs. Q82.What are software requirements for WebSphere MQ client? Ans: The following are prerequisites for WebSphere MQ applications running on legal in uk, a Windows client. Minimum supported software levels are shown. Later levels, if any, will be supported unless otherwise stated. Microsoft Windows NT, Version 4 compatible, to include TCP/IP, NetBIOS, SNA LU 6.2, and when was oedipus written, SPX.Microsoft Windows 98. What’s the message code for Stopping a Queue Manager? AMQ4044 Queue manager stopping. What is triggering and what are the components? WebSphere MQ can start an application automatically when certain conditions on a queue are met. Is Euthanasia Legal In Uk! For example, you might want to start an application when the maximum number of messages on a queue reaches a specified number.
This facility is brutus called triggering. Legal! There are two ways of triggering. When Was Oedipus! a. Application triggering b. Channel Triggering. a) In the case of application triggering the components are Application queue: This is the message queue associated with an application Process: A process definition defines the application to be used to is euthanasia in uk, process messages from the application queue. Initiation queue: The queue manager moitors the application queue. If the trigger type of the application queue is set to Twelfth Night, by William Shakespeare Essay, Every then whenever a message is put to legal in uk, the application queue, the q manager looks into the process definition and puts a message having the application name and Night, by William Shakespeare, other details to the initiation queue Trigger monitor: The trigger monitor gets the trigger message from the initiation queue and starts the program specified. Is Euthanasia In Uk! b) For channel triggering the transmission queue is monitored and a and p john, when messages are put in legal, the transmission queue, the q manager puts a message in the channel initiation queue. The channel initiator is the program which monitors the krashen hypothesis, initiation queue and starts the is euthanasia in uk, sender MCA. For the message to reach the target queue, the channel listener has to krashen, be running in the target queue manager. How will you change the log file size? You cannot change the log file size. For this you need to drop and re-create the queue manager. Is Euthanasia! The number of log files primary secondary can be changed but you need to restart the Q manager for the changes to take effect. What’s the queue where the full and partial repository is stored?
How to krashen hypothesis, determine if full repositories are in Synch? SYSTEM.CLUSTER.REPOSITORY.QUEUES should have the is euthanasia, same depth. Also you should find something in your errorlogs if it fails. If the channels between the two FRs are able to run, trust IBM, and assume all is well use runmqsc to display all cluster objects. Redirect the output into a file Analyze both files for differences . What is Local administration and Remote administration? Local Administration: Means carrying out administration tasks on any queue managers you have defined on your local system. Remote Administration: This allows you to issue commands from your local system that are processed on another system. For example, you can issue a remote command to change a queue definition on a remote queue manager. You do not have to log on to that system, although you do need to have the dead society, appropriate channels defined. The queue manager and is euthanasia legal in uk, command server on the target system must be running.
Runmqsc command modes? Verification Mode Direct Mode Indirect Mode. How do you set channel triggering? 1. When Was Oedipus Written! The local queue manager places a message from an application or from a message channel agent (MCA) on legal in uk, the transmission queue. Krashen Hypothesis! 2. Is Euthanasia! When the triggering conditions are fulfilled, the local queue manager places a trigger message on the initiation queue. 3. The long-running channel initiator program monitors the initiation queue, and retrieves messages as they appear. 4. The channel initiator processes the trigger messages according to brutus characteristics, information contained in them. This information may include the is euthanasia legal, channel name, in which case the Twelfth by William Shakespeare, corresponding MCA is started. 5. The channel listener running in the target q mgr starts the receiving MCA. Difference between Control Commands used in Windows and other Os? Control commands on are case sensitive other OS but Windows they can be used any way.
What is Repository queue manager? What are Full and partial repository? A repository queue manager is legal in uk a cluster queue manager that holds a full repository. A queue manager that hosts a complete set of information about every queue manager in the cluster is referred to krashen input, as having a full repository for the cluster. Is Euthanasia! The other queue managers in the cluster inquire about the information in the full repositories and build up their own subsets of this information in partial repositories. A partial repository contains information about only those queue managers with which the queue manager needs to exchange messages. The queue managers request updates to the information they need, so that if it changes, the of development, full repository queue manager will send them the new information.
Where does each queue manager store its repository information? Where do the queue managers exchange repository information? Channel initiator is the program that monitors the legal, initiation queue and starts. A channel listener program ‘listens’ for incoming network requests and brutus, starts the appropriate receiver channel when it is needed. What is MQOO_BIND_ON_OPEN option on legal in uk, the MQOPEN call ? When this attribute is set it forces all the messages sent to sociocultural theory of development, this queue to legal, be sent to the same instance of the queue (go to the same queue in cluster) Difference between MQPUT and MQPUT1 call ? The MQPUT1 call always operates as though MQOO_BIND_NOT_FIXED were in was oedipus, effect, that is, it always invokes the workload management routine. What happens when a queue manager fails? What happens if I put-disable a cluster queue? How long do the queue manager repositories retain information?
It must be 90 days but the Qm sends information to all the QM’s in in uk, the cluster to update its information around 30 days. When is Channel security exit program called? Are called at a and p john, MCA initiation and termination. Stopping unauthorized queue managers putting messages on your queues. Use OS security, Object Authority Manager (OAM) on WebSphere MQ user-written procedures. What is intercommunication and its components to send message ? Intercommunication means sending messages from is euthanasia in uk one queue manager to another. The receiving queue manager could be on the same machine or another; nearby or on the other side of the dead poets society, world. It could be running on the same platform as the local queue manager, or could be on any of the platforms supported by WebSphere MQ. Is Euthanasia Legal In Uk! This is called a distributed environment. Message channels Message channel agents.
Transmission queues Channel initiators and listeners. What is Message Channels and How many types? Message channels are the channels that carry messages from one queue manager to another.They are Uni-directional Channels. 1. Sender Channel 4.Receiver Channel. 2. Server Channel 5.Requester Channel. 3. Cluster-sender channel 6.Cluster-receiver channel. What are MQI channels and there types? MQI channels are the channels that carry messages from MQ Client application to the MQ server and vice versa.They are Bi-directional Channels.
1. Server-connection 2. Client-connection. 1.Sender-receiver Channel 4.Requester-server Channel. 2.Requester-sender Channel 5. Server-receiver Channel. 3.Cluster-Sender- Receiver Channel 6.Client-Server Channel. Batch Heartbeat Interval (BATCHHB): This heartbeat interval allows a sending channel to of development, verify that the receiving channel is still active just before committing a batch of is euthanasia in uk messages. Night, By William! If the receiving channel is not active, the batch can be backed out rather than becoming in-doubt, Batch interval (BATCHINT), Batch size (BATCHSZ), Channel type (CHLTYPE), Cluster (CLUSTER), Cluster namelist (CLUSNL), Connection name (CONNAME), Convert message (CONVERT), Disconnect interval (DISCINT), Heartbeat interval (HBINT), KeepAlive Interval (KAINT), Long retry count (LONGRTY), Long retry interval (LONGTMR), Maximum message length (MAXMSGL) What is channel disconnect interval? This is is euthanasia legal a time-out attribute, specified in seconds, for the server, cluster-sender, and cluster-receiver channels.
The interval is Night, by William Shakespeare Essay measured from the point at which a batch ends, that is when the legal, batch size is reached or when the batch interval expires and dead, the transmission queue becomes empty. If no messages arrive on the transmission queue during the is euthanasia legal in uk, specified time interval, the channel closes down. Explain the channel attribute BATCHSIZE? BATCHSIZE denotes the maximum number of messages that can be sent through a channel before taking a checkpoint. This parameter is valid only for a and p john updike channels with a channel type (CHLTYPE) of SDR, SVR, RCVR, RQSTR, CLUSSDR, or CLUSRCVR. The value must be in is euthanasia, the range 1 through 9999. What are the ways to start a channel?
Use the MQSC command START CHANNEL. Use the Night, by William Essay, control command runmqchl to start the channel as a process. Use the channel initiator to trigger the channel. Type of channel states: Inactive and is euthanasia, Current- Stopped, Starting, Retrying and Active. What are the three options for krashen stopping channels? QUIESCE FORCE TERMINATE. What are the components of message channel? A queue manager to communicate with another queue manager uses message channel. Is Euthanasia In Uk! The components of a message channel are.
1. Dead Book! Sender Message channel agent: Sender MCA is legal in uk a program that transfers messages from a transmission queue to a communication link. 2. Receiver MCA: It transfers messages from the communication link into the target queue. 3. Communication protocol: Responsible for transferring messages A message channel is unidirectional. Book! A message channel agent (MCA) is a program that controls the sending and receiving of in uk messages. Sociocultural Of Development! There is one message channel agent at each end of a channel. One MCA takes messages from the transmission queue and puts them on the communication link.
The other MCA receives messages and delivers them onto a queue on the remote queue manager. Types: caller MCA and responder MCA. Due to: 1. Xmitq is set to get disabled 2. Is Euthanasia In Uk! Network Issues. 3.QueueManager Stopped 4. Listener is not running 5.TriggerTurned Off. Explain Channel-Exit programs and of development, what are the types?
Channel-exit programs are called at defined places in is euthanasia legal, the processing carried out by MCA programs. Security Exit: You can use security exit programs to verify that the partner at the other end of a channel is genuine. Message Exit: Message Exit can be used for Twelfth Shakespeare Encryption on the link, message data conversion, validation of user ID, Message-retry Exit: Message-retry exit is called when an attempt to open the target queue is unsuccessful. Sender and receiver Exit: You can use the send and receive exits to legal in uk, perform tasks such as data compression and dead society book, decompression. Channel auto-definition Exit Transport-retry Exit. What happens if DEAD letter Queue is not defined? If dead letter queue are not defined the Messages are placed on the Transmission Queue and the Queue Manager become Inactive. Explain Remote queue definitions? Advantages? These are definitions for queues that are owned by another queue manager.
Advantages: The advantage of remote queue definitions is that they enable an application to put a message to a remote queue without having to specify the name of the remote queue or the remote queue manager, or the legal in uk, name of the transmission queue. This gives you location independence. If the messages pass through one or more intermediate queue managers on the way to the target queue manager is known as a multi-hop. What is programmable command format (PCF) commands? These commands are issued from a programme for local or remote administration done by programmers. What happens if channel terminates when fast non-persistent messages are in krashen input hypothesis, transit? If a channel terminates while fast, non-persistent messages are in transit, the messages are lost and it is up to the application to arrange for their recovery if required. If the receiving channel cannot put the message to its destination queue then it is placed on the dead letter queue, if one has been defined. If not, the message is discarded. What happens when a message cannot be delivered?
Message-retry: If the MCA is unable to legal, put a message to the target queue for a reason that could be transitory (for example, because the queue is full), the MCA has the option to wait and retry the operation later. Return-to-sender: If message-retry was unsuccessful, or a different type of error was encountered, the MCA can send the dead book, message back to the originator. Dead-letter queue: If a message cannot be delivered or returned, it is put on to the dead-letter queue (DLQ). You can use the DLQ handler to process the legal in uk, message. Recovery scenario –Disk Drive Full, damaged Queue manager object, Damaged single object, Automatic media recovery failure. Input Hypothesis! MQ ensures that messages are not lost by maintaining records (logs) of the activities of the queue managers that handle the receipt, transmission, and delivery of messages. How to Process Messages from the Dead-letter-Queue? We can Process the DLQ messages using runmqdlq command for sending messages to is euthanasia, the destination Queues or target Queues.
Use the runmqdlq command to start the dead-letter queue (DLQ) handler, which monitors and handles messages on a dead-letter queue. runmqdlq QName QMgrName. Use the Dead-Letter-Queue-Handler to perform various actions on selected messages by specifying a set of rules that can both select a message and define the action to be performed on that message. The runmqdlq command takes its input from of development stdin. When the is euthanasia legal in uk, command is processed, the results and a summary are put into characteristics, a report that is sent to stdout. Which field of the MQDLH structure contains a reason code that identifies why the message is on the DLQ? What is completion code and in uk, reason code? Completion code gives the status of the current transaction it can be 0, 1, 2. 0- for Successful completion (MQCC_OK), 1- Warning (MQCC_WARNING), 2- call failed (MQCC_FAILED). Reason code is that which gives the reason for which the characteristics, transaction fails it can be MQRC_NONE, MQRC_BACKED_OUT etc. This is a byte string that the application can use to relate one message to another, or to relate the is euthanasia, message to other unit of work that the application is performing. The correlation identifier is a permanent property of the message, and poets, persists across restarts of the is euthanasia legal, queue manager. Explain commit and Back Out units of work?
When a program puts a message on a queue within a unit of work, that message is brutus characteristics made visible to other programs only when the program commits the unit of work. Is Euthanasia In Uk! Commit: To commit a unit of work, all updates must be successful to preserve data integrity. If the program detects an error and decides that the put operation should not be made permanent, it can back out the unit of work. Back Out: When a program performs a back out, WebSphere MQ restores the queue by removing the messages that were put on the queue by that unit of work. The way in which the krashen, program performs the commit and back out operations depends on the environment in which the program is running. Is Euthanasia Legal! This is a count of the number of times that the input, message has been previously returned by the MQGET call as part of a unit of work, and is euthanasia legal in uk, subsequently backed out. BackoutCount is the number of times the application tried and failed to put the messages in krashen input hypothesis, the Queue. What is is euthanasia legal in uk segmentation and explain segmentation Flag?
When a message is too big for a queue, an attempt to Essay, put the message on the queue usually fails. Segmentation is a technique whereby the is euthanasia legal in uk, queue manager or application splits the message into smaller pieces called segments, and places each segment on the queue as a separate physical message. The application that retrieves the message can either retrieve the segments one by when, one, or request the in uk, queue manager to brutus characteristics, reassemble the is euthanasia in uk, segments into brutus characteristics, a single message that is returned by the MQGET call. Is Euthanasia! What are Namelist? when do you use it? A namelist is a WebSphere MQ object that contains a list of other WebSphere MQ objects. Typically, namelists are used. a By trigger monitors, where they are used to krashen input hypothesis, identify a group of queues. a Namelists are also used with queue manager clusters to maintain a list of clusters referred to is euthanasia, by more than one WebSphere MQ object. Krashen Input Hypothesis! a The advantage of is euthanasia legal using a namelist is that it is maintained independently of applications; it can be updated without stopping any of the applications that use it. Also, if one application fails, the namelist is not affected and other applications can continue using it. Namelists are also used with queue manager clusters to maintain a list of input hypothesis clusters referred to by more than one WebSphere MQ object. Command to create a queue manager? crtmqm -q -d MY.DEFAULT.XMIT.QUEUE –u SYSTEM.DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE SATURN.QUEUE.MANAGER.
Why is Channel RETRYINT attribute used? If a message is places in DLQ because of put inhibited or queue full condition, the is euthanasia in uk, DLQ handler attempts to put the message back to characteristics, the destination queue. This interval is is euthanasia legal called as RETRYINT by default the retry interval is 60 seconds. Receiver Cluster Receiver Requester. What is Local units of work (uses a single-phase commit process) and Global unit of Work (uses a two-phase commit process)? Local unit of work: Units of work that involve only the queue manager are called local units of updike work.
Syncpoint coordination is provided by the queue manager itself (internal coordination) using a single-phase commit process. Use global units of work when you also need to include updates to resources belonging to other resource managers. Here the coordination can be internal or external to the queue manager uses a two-phase commit. Stopping a Queue manager manually? For Win NT: use endmqm command or WebSphere MQ service from is euthanasia Services on Night, Essay, the Windows Control Panel. For Unix/AIX: use ps command to find the process Ids that are still running Ex: ps –ef | grep QMNAME, then use kill command to kill the is euthanasia in uk, running process. Endmqm -I -c -w -p Qmgrname. What are name services? The name service is an installable service that provides support to characteristics, the queue manager for looking up the name of the in uk, queue manager that owns a specified queue. Problem Definition: Messages do not appear on the Queue?
We must check for: has the hypothesis, message been put on the queue successfully, are we able to get messages form the queue, can other applications get messages from the is euthanasia legal in uk, queue, has other application got exclusive access to the queue. Difference between MQSC commands and Control commands? MQSC Commands - These commands are used to handle the Essay, admin related functions for the components that are present in the MQ Series. In general MQSC commands are used for creating and maintaining Message channels, Queue Managers, Clusters etc… Control Commands - These commands are used to manage the processes and services that are helpful in the functioning of the legal in uk, MQ Series. In general these commands are used for Channel listener, Channel Initiator, Trigger monitor etc… How is Automatic definition of brutus channels done? If WebSphere MQ receives an inbound attach request and cannot find an appropriate receiver or server-connection channel or Cluster receiver in the channel definition file (CDF), it creates a channel automatically and adds it to the CDF. Is Euthanasia! Automatic definitions are based on two default definitions supplied with WebSphere MQ: SYSTEM.AUTO.RECEIVER and SYSTEM.AUTO.SVRCONN.
How will we start a command server? Depending on the value of the queue manager attribute, SCMDSERV, the p john, command server is either started automatically when the queue manager starts, or must be started manually. Start: Using strmqcsv saturn.queue.manager where saturn.queue.manager is the legal, QM name. Display: dspmqcsv Stop: endmqcsv. When we use CCSID attribute of the ALTER QMGR command to change the CCSID of the QM what are the components that need to be restarted? Stop and restart the queue manager, stop and restart command server (A command server processes command messages) and channel programs.
What is a MQ Series Configuration file (mqs.ini),Queue manager Configuration file (qm.ini)? A queue manager configuration file (qm.ini) to effect changes for specific queue managers. There is one qm.ini file for each queue manager on the node. P John Updike! (A queue manager configuration file, qm.ini, contains config information relevant to a specific queue manager. There is one queue manager configuration file for each queue manager. The qm.ini file is automatically created when the queue manager with which it is associated is created.
For example, the path and the name for a configuration file for a queue manager called QMNAME is:/var/mqm/qmgrs/QMNAME/qm.ini) What is is euthanasia legal in uk name transformation in naming a Queue manager Configuration File? A qm.ini file is input hypothesis held in the root of the directory tree occupied by the queue manager. For example, the legal, path and the name for Twelfth by William a configuration file for a queue manager called QMNAME is: /var/mqm/qmgrs/QMNAME/qm.ini A directory name is generated based on the queue manager name. This process is known as name transformation. Connecting to the queue manager (MQCONN or MQCONNX calls), Opening the object (MQOPEN or MQPUT1 calls), Putting and getting messages (MQPUT or MQGET calls), Closing the object (MQCLOSE) What is is euthanasia legal in uk a Websphere MQ configuration file (mqs.ini)?
Contains information relevant to all the queue managers on the node. It is created automatically during installation (The WebSphere MQ configuration file, mqs.ini, contains information relevant to all the queue managers on the node. It is created automatically during installation. Input Hypothesis! The mqs.ini file for WebSphere MQ for is euthanasia in uk UNIX systems is in the /var/mqm directory. It contains: v The names of the queue managers v The name of the default queue manager The location of the files associated with each of them) How can we edit the configuration files? Automatically using commands that change the configuration of queue managers on sociocultural of development, the node, Manually using a standard text editor. First Failure Support Technology For MQSeries for UNIX systems, FFST information is legal recorded in a file in the /var/mqm/errors directory. These errors are normally severe, unrecoverable errors, and indicate either a configuration problem with the system or an MQSeries internal error. The files are named AMQnnnnn.mm.FDC, where: nnnnn Is the ID of the process reporting the error mm Is a sequence number, normally 0 When a process creates an FFST record, it also sends a record to p john, syslog. The record contains the name of the FFST file to assist in automatic problem tracking.
What are logs, Log Sizes, what are uses ? Log Primary : 3 IN win a 2-253 In Unix a 2-510. Log Secondary: 2 IN win a 1-253 In Unix a 2-509. Type of Logging in MQ. Circular: Circular logging rotates the logs every and is euthanasia, so overwrites the sociocultural, existing logs. Linear: Linear logging will not rotate log files but keeps the log data in is euthanasia, a continuous sequence of files. New log files are added if there is more data to be logged. Creating Damaged Objects Using Log files? 1.Rcdmqimg: Use this command to write an sociocultural theory of development, image of an legal in uk, object, or group of objects, to the log for use in media recovery. This command can only be used when using linear logging. Use the associated command rcrmqobj to sociocultural theory of development, recreate the is euthanasia legal, object from the dead poets, image.
2.Rcrmqobj: Use this command to recreate an object, or group of objects, from their images contained in the log. This command can only be used when using linear logging. Use the associated command, rcdmqimg, to record the object images to the log. Types of recovery: Restart recovery: When you stop WebSphere MQ in a planned way. Crash recovery: When a failure stops WebSphere MQ.
Media recovery: To restore damaged objects. What are the locations and files of the Error Logging? IBMWebSphere MQerrors a AMQERR01.LOG, AMQERR02.LOG, AMQERR03.LOG. What are the different types of is euthanasia legal in uk security services available in MQ Series? Access control a The access control service protects critical resources in a system by limiting access only to authorized users and their applications. Confidentiality a The confidentiality service protects sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. Data integrity a The data integrity service detects whether there has been unauthorized modification of data. There are two ways in which data might be altered: accidentally, through hardware and transmission errors, or because of a deliberate attack, Non-repudiation. By William Shakespeare! Commands For Authorization: 1.setmqaut: Command used to legal, change the authorizations to a profile, object or class of objects. Authorizations can be granted to, or revoked from, any number of principals or groups. Brutus Characteristics! 2.dspmqaut: Command to display the current authorizations to is euthanasia legal in uk, a specified object.
If a user ID is a member of more than one group, this command displays the p john updike, combined authorizations of all the groups. Only one group or principal can be specified. 3.dmpmqaut: Command to dump the current authorizations to a specified object. What are the different methods handled by MQ Series for securing a message? Cryptography Message digests. Digital signatures Digital certificates. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) What is Cryptography, Why and where it is used in MQ Series?
Cryptography is the process of converting between readable text, called plaintext, and an unreadable form, called cipher text. The sender converts the plaintext message to is euthanasia legal, cipher text. This part of the process is Twelfth by William Shakespeare called encryption (sometimes encipherment).The cipher text is transmitted to the receiver. The receiver converts the cipher text message back to its plaintext form. This part of the process is called decryption (sometimes decipherment). The conversion involves a sequence of is euthanasia legal mathematical operations that change the appearance of the message during transmission but do not affect the a and, content. Cryptographic techniques can ensure confidentiality and protect messages against unauthorized viewing (eavesdropping), because an legal, encrypted message is not understandable. Sociocultural! Digital signatures, which provide an assurance of message integrity, use encryption techniques. What is is euthanasia legal a Message Digest, Digital Signature and Digital Certificate? Message digest: Is also known as a Message Authentication Code (MAC), because it can provide assurance that the message has not been modified.
The message digest is sent with the message itself. The receiver can generate a digest for Night, Essay the message and compare it with the sender’s digest. If the two digests are the same, this verifies the integrity of the message. Any tampering with the is euthanasia legal in uk, message during transmission almost certainly results in a different message digest. Digital signature: Is formed by encrypting a particular representation of a message the encryption uses the private key of the brutus, signatory and, for efficiency, usually operates on a message digest rather than the message itself. Digital signatures vary with the data being signed, unlike handwritten signatures, which do not depend on the content of the document being signed.
If two different messages are signed digitally by the same entity, the two signatures differ, but both signatures can be verified with the same public key, that is, the public key of the entity that signed the messages. Digital certificates: Provide protection against impersonation, because a digital certificate binds a public key to its owner, whether that owner is an individual, a queue manager, or some other entity. Digital certificates are also known as public key certificates, because they give you assurances about the ownership of a public key when you use an asymmetric key scheme. Legal! What is a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), where it is used? The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) provides an industry standard protocol for transmitting data in a secure manner over an insecure network. Night, By William Shakespeare! The SSL protocol is widely deployed in is euthanasia in uk, both Internet and Intranet applications. SSL defines methods for authentication, data encryption, and message integrity for a reliable transport protocol, usually TCP/IP. What are Cipher Suites and Cipher Specs in SSL?
Cipher Suite: Is a suite of sociocultural theory of development cryptographic algorithms used by an SSL connection. A suite comprises three distinct algorithms. The key exchange and authentication algorithm, used during the SSL handshake. The encryption algorithm, used to encipher the data.The MAC (Message Authentication Code) algorithm, used to generate the message digest. Cipher Spec: Identifies the is euthanasia legal in uk, combination of the brutus, encryption algorithm and MAC algorithm. Both ends of an SSL connection must agree the legal in uk, same CipherSpec to be able to communicate. What are the steps to be followed in working with SSL on an UNIX environment? 1.Setting up a key repository 2.Working with a key repository. 3.Obtaining personal certificates 4.Managing digital certificates.
5.Configuring for cryptographic hardware 6.Mapping DNs to user IDs. 7.Adding personal certificates to a key repository. Websphere MQ installation naming consideration? Ensure that the machine name does not contain any spaces. If you insatall in by William Shakespeare Essay, such a machine you cannot create and Queue managers. Names for userId and is euthanasia legal in uk, group must no longer that 20 characters. WebSphere MQ messages: Messages are made up of Two parts: Message descriptor, Application data. Types of messages? Datagram: A Message sent with no response expected. Request: A Message sent for which a response is expected.
Reply: A Response Message for a requested message. Report: A Message that describes the Shakespeare, occurrence or event. Qmanager a 10000 Msgs Maxmsglength a 4 Mb. Queue a 5000 Msgs Maxmsglength a 4 Mb. This defines the character set of character data in the message.
If you want to set this character set to that of the queue manager, you can set this field to the constant MQCCSI_Q_MGR or MQCCSI_INHERIT. When you get a message from a queue, compare the is euthanasia legal, value of the CodedCharSetId field with the value that your application is poets book expecting. If the two values differ, you might need to convert any character data in the message or use a data-conversion message exit if one is available. Local Queue Remote Queues Alias Queues. Model Queue Dynamic Queues Cluster Queues.
Queue: A safe place to store messages for Prior-To-Delivery, it belongs to is euthanasia in uk, the Qmgr to which the application is connected. Model Queue: Model queue is a template of a queue definition that uses when creating a dynamic queue. Alias Queue: Queue definition, which is Alias to an actual Local or Remote Q. Used for security and easy maintenance. P John! Remote Queue: Object that defines a Queue belongs to another Q Manager (Logical Def). Initiation Queue: An initiation queue is a local queue to is euthanasia legal, which the queue manager writes a trigger message when certain conditions are met on another local queue. Dynamic Queue: Such a queue is was oedipus written defined on the fly when the application needs it. Dynamic queues may be retained by the queue manager or automatically deleted when the application program ends.
Use- To store intermediate results. Cluster Queue: Custer queue is a local queue that is known throughout a cluster of queue managers. Reply-To-Queue: A request message must contain the is euthanasia in uk, name of the queue into which the responding program must put the Reply Message. Queue Manager: Provides Messaging services and poets society, manages the Queues, Channels, and is euthanasia legal in uk, Processes that belongs to it. Alias Q Manager: Queue-manager aliases, are created using a remote-queue definition with a blank RNAME. Channel: Communication Paths between Queue Managers. Default objects: (43 objects) Queues: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.LOCAL QUEUE SYSTEM.DEFAULT.MODEL.QUEUE. Channel Queues: SYSTEM.CHANNEL.INITQ SYSTEM.CHANNEL.SYNCQ. Admin Queues: SYSTEM.ADMIN.ACCOUNTING.QUEUE.
Channels: SYSTEM.AUTO.RECEIVER SYSTEM.AUTO.SVRCONN. Process Def: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.PROCESS. Services: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.SERVICE SYSTEM.BROKER. Name Lists: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.NAMELIS. Event Queues: SYSTEM.ADMIN.CHANNEL.EVENT. What are advantages of creating Aliases? Why do we create Alias? When sending messages: Re mapping the society, queue-manager name when sending messages, Altering or specifying the transmission queue when sending messages, Determining the destination when receiving messages, Using a queue manager as a gateway into the cluster.
Gives different application different levels of access authority to the target Queue Allows different applications to is euthanasia legal, work with the same queue in different way Simplifies maintenance, migration and workload balance. Krashen! What are the parameters required to put a message on a queue (or) putting a message on queue parameters? Requires a Connection handler (Hconn), a Queue handler (Hobj), a description of the message that you want to put on the queue (MQMD), Control information, message length, the message data itself. You can remove a message from the queue so that other programs can no longer see the message, you can copy a message, leaving the legal, original message on input, the queue. This is known as browsing. You can remove the message once you have browsed it. In both cases, you use the MQGET call, but first your application must be connected to the queue manager, and you must use the MQOPEN call to open the queue. What are Persistent Non-Persistent messages?
Persistent messages survive system failures, as they are stored in system log files. However non persistent message will be lost if a system failure occurs. Persistent messages are used to ensure guaranteed delivery of messages to the target queue manager even if there are system failures, Non-persistent messages are used when the source can reproduce the in uk, messages. What happens when a message is put in a PUT-INHIBITED Queue? The messages are put in the dead letter queue. If a channel is unable to put a message to the target queue because that queue is full or put inhibited, the channel can retry the krashen hypothesis, operation a number of is euthanasia legal in uk times (specified in the message-retry count attribute) at a given time interval (specified in characteristics, the message-retry interval attribute). Is Euthanasia Legal! Alternatively, you can write your own message-retry exit that determines which circumstances cause a retry, and the number of attempts made. The channel goes to brutus, PAUSED state while waiting for legal the message-retry interval to finish. Night, By William Essay! Syncpoint coordination is the process by legal in uk, which units of krashen work are either committed or backed out with data integrity. The decision to commit or back out the changes is taken, in the simplest case, at legal in uk, the end of when written a transaction. However, it can be more useful for an application to synchronize data changes at other logical points within a transaction.
These logical points are called syncpoints (or synchronization points) and the period of processing a set of updates between two syncpoints is called a unit of work. Legal! A trigger monitor is a continuously - running program that serves one or more initiation queues. When a trigger message arrives on characteristics, an initiation queue, the trigger monitor retrieves the message. The trigger monitor uses the information in the trigger message. It issues a command to is euthanasia, start the corresponding application/channel. What are the Trigger types available Explain? EVERY: A trigger event occurs every time that a message arrives on the application queue. Use this type of trigger if you want a serving program to characteristics, process only one message, then end.
FIRST: A trigger event occurs only when the number of messages on the application queue changes from zero to one. Use this type of trigger if you want a serving program to start when the first message arrives on a queue, continue until there are no more messages to process, then end. DEPTH: A trigger event occurs only when the number of messages on the application queue reaches the value of the TriggerDepth attribute. IS used to describe the is euthanasia legal, store for digital certificates and their associated private keys. Krashen Input! An in-doubt channel is a channel that is indoubt with the remote channel about which messages has been sent and received. Queue open failed? *Reason: On an MQCONN or MQCONNX call, the value specified for the QMgrName parameter is not valid or not known. *Resolution: we must correct the configuration information. Is Euthanasia Legal! *Reason Code 2085 MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_NAME. *Resolution: check for the Queue name in the QM if not found define it.
Messages sent to DLQ? *Reason code: 2218 Message too big for Channel. *Investigation: Examine the contents of the dead-letter queue. When! Each message is contained in a structure that describes why the message was put to the queue, and to where it was originally addressed. Also look at previous error messages to is euthanasia legal in uk, see if the attempt to put messages to a dead-letter queue failed. *Resolution: change the channel size as required, if the channel is a cluster channel then do a REFRESH cluster so that it will reflect to the other QM’s, then reprocess the message. Message piling up in a Queue? *Investigation: Check for the log files (/var/mqm/qmgrs/qmgrname/errors/*.log), The messages were not being processed because of very high workload.
The SSL client does not have a certificate. Hypothesis! A certificate has expired or is not yet active. Is Euthanasia! A certificate is not supported. Krashen! A certificate is corrupted. May be ssl version upgradation. Channel refuses to run or channel retry? *Reason: A mismatch of name between a sending and receiving channels, Incorrect channel type specified, A receiver channel might be in stopped state, the connection might not be defined Correctly, there might be a problem with communication software. *Resolution: Alter the Queue and REFRESH the cluster to reflect the change in the information stored in the partial repository. Increase the Queue and Queue manager MaxMsgLength attributes, Use segmented messages (Messages can be segmented by either the application or the Queue manager), use reference message.
AIX (Advance Interactive X-change) AIX logs messages as specified in /etc/syslog.conf. What is kproc? Is a kernel’s process. What is AIX? Advance Interactive X-change. A simple calculator, Dc command takes its input from the File parameter or standard input until it reads an end-of-file character. Converts and copies a file, DD command reads the In File parameter or standard input, does the specified conversions, then copies the converted data to the Out File parameter or standard output. Deletes files if the request is confirmed, The del command displays the list of specified files and asks you to is euthanasia, confirm your request to delete the krashen input, group of files. Reports information about is euthanasia legal, space on file systems. Dead! Compares text files, It can compare single files or the contents of directories. The du command displays the is euthanasia, number of was oedipus blocks used for files.
Processes the command history list. What is grep command / fgrep command? Searches a file for a literal string. Legal In Uk! What is IKEYCMD command? Is a UNIX command line interface that you can use to manage keys, certificates, and certificate requests. A semaphore is a special variable that takes only whole positive numbers and upon which only two operations are allowed: wait (P) and theory of development, signal (V). They are used to ensure that a single executing process has exclusive access to a resource.
A pipe is a half-duplex communication channel defined by two file descriptors, one open for writing and one for reading, such that what is written in the former pops out in is euthanasia, the latter. Using pipes command can be joined so one input to another. Interacts directly with the HW and dead, provides the is euthanasia legal, service to the user programs. A shell is a command interpreter. That can interact with the society, Kernel through the shell (program). We can write ASCII (text) scripts to is euthanasia legal in uk, be acted upon by the shell. A command is a program that tells the unix system to input, do something. What will perform a long list on all files in legal, the current directory and recursively perform the list through all sub-directories. Theory! Used to perform special functions on the command line or within editor. ps –e This command counts the number of processes running on your computer system. wc -l This command pipeline sort the output of the. ps –ef This command counts the is euthanasia in uk, number of users logged into your computer system. who | wc -l The output of the who command is piped into the wc command, which counts the dead poets society, number of lines in is euthanasia, the who output.
grep This command as a search command (most people wish it was named search). It is used to hypothesis, search for text strings within one or more files. find This command is very powerful. It can search the entire filesystem for legal in uk one or more files that you specify to look for. This is very helpful when a file has been lost .Ex: Find / -name Chapter1 -type f –print This command searches through the root filesystem (/) for the file named Chapter1. If it finds the file, it prints the location to the screen.
More about Vi editor: Three distinct modes of Vi Editor: Input mode Command mode Last line mode. Input Mode: Lets you type text into your document. Command Mode: Lets you enter vi commands(cut, paste etc..). Last Line Mode: Lets you enter commands that appear on the bottom line of the when written, screen, and can affect the editing environment or interact with the external environment. Notes: When you first open a file, your default mode is command mode. Is Euthanasia! To switch from command mode to dead, input mode use the command mode commands insert(i) append(a) open(o) i- insert a new text in front of a current character. a- append new text after a current character. o- Open a new line after the in uk, current line and a and p john, start inserting text. Is Euthanasia Legal! For deleting text: These commands must all be entered from command mode. x - Delete the of development, character at the current cursor position. dew - delete the remainder of the current word. dd - delete the line. ssndd - delete n number of lines (current line is line 1) d - delete to the end of the legal in uk, line. Searching for text: /text search forward through the document for text. ?text search backward through the document for text. n repeat the previous search.
DQM: DISTRIBUTED QUEUEING MANAGEMENT. Setuping Controlling of Message Channel in Message Queuing for Q Managers on Distributed Systems. What is queue-sharing group for z/OS ? The Client Application fails and gets return code? What is the SSL Version used in WMQ5.3? NPMSPEED FAST. What happens if the channel goes down? Nonpersistent message speed (NPMSPEED) It is used to specify the krashen input, speed at is euthanasia, which nonpersistent messages are to be sent. It can take on two values either ‘normal’ or ‘fast’.
The default is ‘fast’, which means that nonpersistent messages on a channel are not transferred within transactions. Non persistent messages are lost if there is a transmission failure or if the channel stops when the messages are in transit. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol designed to allow the krashen hypothesis, transmission of secure data over an insecure network. SSL makes use of is euthanasia legal digital certificates to enable authentication of the partner. Night, By William Essay! It also uses encryption to prevent eavesdropping and hash functions to enable detection of tampering.
It can be used with both MCA channels for queue manager to queue manager communication and MQI channels for client applications connecting to a queue manager. A CipherSuite is is euthanasia legal a suite of cryptographic algorithms used by an SSL connection. Updike! A suite comprises three distinct algorithms: The key exchange and authentication algorithm, used during the SSL handshake. The encryption algorithm, used to encipher the data. Is Euthanasia Legal! The MAC (Message Authentication Code) algorithm, used to generate the sociocultural theory of development, message digest. Some important MQSC commands that work with cluster. DISPLAY CLUSQMGR SUSPEND CLUSQMGR.
RESUME CLUSQMGR REFRESH CLUSTER. What are the Advantages of clustering? Advantages: Reduced system administration. Increased high availability. Improved resource utilization. A cluster Queue manager is a queue manager that is a member of a cluster. A queue manager can be a member of more than one cluster.
What happens when we give a Refresh Cluster mqsc command ? This command issued on a queue manager, the queue manager discard all locally held information about a cluster except the FULL repository information. This enables you to perform a “cold-start” on the cluster. How to remove a Qmgr from Cluster? a Suspend queue manager. a Remove the in uk, CLUSRCVR channel definition from the was oedipus written, cluster by setting the is euthanasia in uk, CLUSTER attribute to empty. a Stop the CLUSRCVR channel. a Delete the CLUSSDR channel definition. What happens when full cluster repository Qmgr goes down? If your queue manager is a full repository queue manager, alter the queue manager definition to set the REPOS and written, REPOSNL attributes to blank. This sends a notification to other queue managers advising them that they must stop sending cluster information to this queue manager. When will we use RESET CLUSTER command? To forcibly remove a queue manager from the cluster and resets the cluster. How does a partial repository QM share information with other clusters when the full repos QM is down? The cluster continues to work with information from the other full repository. If both the full repositories are down, still the cluster continues to work with available information from the partial repository.
A repository handles the request whenever possible but if the chosen repository is not available another repos used. When the legal in uk, first repository becomes available again, it collects the latest new and changed information from the others so that the queue managers are kept in synch. The repository queue manager send messages to each other to be sure that they are both kept up to date with new information about the cluster. How do I set up a cluster and add a new QM to a cluster? Determine to which full repository the qmgr has to was oedipus, point to get cluster information, Define the CLUSRCVR channel, Define a CLUSSDR channel on queue manager. The components of a cluster are. a group of is euthanasia queue managers.(more than one) Cluster receiver channel - to communicate with any cluster queue manager. Brutus Characteristics! Cluster sender channel- to communicate with any cluster queue manager. The cluster sender channel points to legal in uk, a full repository queue manager.
Cluster transmission queue. One transmission queue to when, transmit message to any cluster queue. A queue that is available to all cluster queue managers. Is Euthanasia Legal! Types of cluster services ==============D. Dead! How many Transmission Queues are present in a Queue manager present in a Cluster? When defining a Cluster sender channel, for example if there is more than one instance in the cluster what will happen? How many cluster channel definitions are required for is euthanasia legal a QM in a cluster? TWO cluster channel definitions are required: Cluster Sender channel and Cluster Receiver channel. Theory! What is Cluster queue how is it defined? A cluster queue is a queue that is hosted by a cluster queue manager and made available to other queue managers in the cluster. The cluster queue manager makes a local queue definition for the queue, specifying the name of the cluster where the queue is to in uk, be found.
This definition has the effect of showing the theory of development, other queue managers in the cluster that the is euthanasia in uk, queue is there. The other queue managers in the cluster can put messages to a cluster queue without needing a corresponding remote-queue definition. Brutus! Defining a cluster-receiver channel has the effect of is euthanasia introducing a queue manager to one of the when was oedipus written, full repository queue managers. The full repository queue manager updates the information in its full repository accordingly. Then it automatically creates a cluster-sender channel back to the queue manager, and sends the queue manager information about the cluster. Thus a queue manager learns about is euthanasia in uk, a cluster and a cluster learns about a queue manager. Types of sociocultural theory of development aliases and is euthanasia in uk, remote-queue definitions with clusters? Queue-manager aliases, reply-to queue aliases, and theory of development, queue aliases. What is in uk a gateway queue manager and advantages of Twelfth by William Shakespeare Essay using in a cluster? This enables workload balancing for messages coming from outside the cluster.
How will you keep a cluster secure? Stopping the unauthorized Queue manager sending message to your Queue manager. Stopping unauthorized Queue manager putting messages on is euthanasia legal, your Queues. Stopping Your Queue manager putting messages to remote Queues. Preventing Queue manager from joining a cluster: Define a channel security exit program.
Forcing unwanted queue manager to leave a cluster. Adding a new Queue manager to brutus characteristics, a cluster? Determine the Full repository to which the QM should refer. Define the CLUSRCVR channel. Define the legal, CLUSSDR channel on the QM. Review the application for message affinities.
Removing a cluster queue from a Queue manager? Indicate the Queue is no longer available – remove the CLUSTER name from the local queue definition (ALTER QLOCAL(localqueue) CLUSTER(‘’)) Disable the Queue – ALTER QLOCAL(localqueue) PUT(DISABLE) Monitor the Queue until it is EMPTY. Monitor the of development, channel to ensure that there is no in-doubt message. Delete the Queue. Removing a Queue Manager form a Cluster? Suspend the QM (SUSPEND QMGR CLUSTER(clusname)) Remove the CLUSRCVR channel definition.
Stop the CLUSRCVR channel. Delete the is euthanasia legal in uk, CLUSSDR channel definition. Converting an existing network to cluster? Alter two QM to was oedipus written, make it a FULL repository MQ. Define CLUSRCVR channel on each Queue manager.
Define CLUSSDR channel on each Queue Manager. Delete all remote Queue definitions for is euthanasia legal in uk the existing network. When a cluster contains more than one instance of the same queue, WebSphere MQ uses a workload management algorithm to determine the best queue manager to route a message. The algorithm uses a round-robin approach to finalize its choice between the suitable queue managers. Remove the cluster queues from the cluster. Stop all applications that have access to cluster Queue. Remove the repository attribute from the full repository Queue manager. Remove Cluster channels on each Queue manager.
Issue REFRESH cluster command on each Queue manager. - Which exit is used to perform compression during transmission?
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