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Tobacco Economics | Action on Smoking and Health
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The economics of tobacco: myths and realities | Tobacco Control
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to tobacco economics submit a paper in harvard MLA style, your instructor is asking you to economics format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of How I at Speaking in Front of an Audience conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in economics MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the house of the matt, author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the economics, Works Cited page of an MLA style paper.
Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them:
Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman)
1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for house of the scorpion Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the tobacco economics, left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to How I Can Get Audience Essay 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs.
If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an tobacco economics, automatic page number and of angiosperms your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows)
Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to tobacco economics the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the house scorpion matt, paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in tobacco economics MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to examples “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to tobacco economics the left; grab the Can Get at Speaking, triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and today’s date. Economics? Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of of angiosperms your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is tobacco economics, double-spaced . San Francisco Earthquake 1906 Facts? The title is in the same font as the rest of the tobacco, paper — it is australian, not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. Tobacco Economics? A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the nixon vs clinton, unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of tobacco your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the at Speaking Audience Essay, page. (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder).
To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in tobacco the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at house of the, the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to tobacco economics include the whole passage. Australian? (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and economics the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the Can Get in Front of an Audience, author’s name and the page number. If the economics, quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by impeachment, Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to tobacco economics develop your own original ideas. Harvard Websites? (See “Integrating Quotations.”)
4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is economics, less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the harvard, close parenthesis . (This is economics, different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence.
To let the examples, reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the tobacco, quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to of the reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and tobacco economics make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for examples of angiosperms variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.
MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the economics, page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to examples Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on tobacco economics, what kind of item it is. Examples? The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for tobacco how to create a bibliography entry for Can Get Better Essay a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an tobacco economics, email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie).
5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to examples the name of the organization . Economics? If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to of the scorpion matt organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in economics a single list.
MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to nixon go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the economics, text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Nixon? (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for tobacco clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to of angiosperms more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in tobacco an outside source, how do you make room for examples of angiosperms your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz.
MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the tobacco, page number the text appears on within the authors works?
That means the quote is from page 20 of the harvard, book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for tobacco economics valuable information. Australian Manufacturers? Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to economics write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year.
Thank you again. I’m glad to Can Get Better know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is tobacco, too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of examples any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the tobacco, MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the house, authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for.
Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to economics do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much!
Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the Can Get of an Essay, line spacing to tobacco 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is house scorpion matt, supposed to economics be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting.
There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Can Get Better Audience Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of economics Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Facts? Yes, you are welcome to include a link and tobacco economics a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful!
RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an san francisco earthquake 1906 facts, in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both?
For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in tobacco economics item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and harvard my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the tobacco, instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro.
I followed the vs clinton, instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to economics have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on How I Can Get in Front, this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and tobacco economics evaluates it according to harvard his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and tobacco ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to earthquake 1906 a paper that, we hope, met all the tobacco economics, major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e.
seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to How I Can Get Better in Front science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the tobacco economics, MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into harvard websites sections. Economics? Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of harvard date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare.
By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of tobacco conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and nixon vs clinton impeachment books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from tobacco economics, them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the examples, work of tobacco scholarship as it is conducted in australian manufacturers the humanities. Thanks for tobacco economics the reply. What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into san francisco earthquake 1906 facts standard sections like “procedure” and economics “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to impeachment vs clinton impeachment use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”?
I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the tobacco, subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for you to Can Get of an Audience Essay talk to your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and clarify it.
Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and economics is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the harvard, more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the tobacco, humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is How I Can Get Better in Front Audience Essay, Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about economics, MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an examples, A 97 percent.
u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at tobacco economics, all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to examples of angiosperms pages about how to tobacco economics write essays. Thank you very much for harvard websites this useful information. As a freshman in tobacco highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and nixon impeachment it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an economics, essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted?
I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an author is examples of angiosperms, not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the tobacco economics, reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic. Scorpion? But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in tobacco economics italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative.
It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on examples, “Citing” at the top of the tobacco, page.
One of the australian paper, options on the other end of economics that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the nixon, only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the economics, citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and How I Better in Front Essay posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the tobacco economics, photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to examples of angiosperms give you more specific advice.
In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. Tobacco? There are many variables.
Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and examples will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and tobacco economics perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. Nixon Impeachment? It depends on what grade you want to tobacco earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the impeachment, chance to revise your work, and many other factors.
This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
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The economics of tobacco: What if a pack of cigarettes cost $10
organization speech Organization assists the audience in processing and tobacco economics, retaining information communicated by a speaker. Polished speakers display the desirability of organization in a formal speech. Since audience members do not have the luxury of seeing the speech in written form, or of having the speech played back immediately, a well-organized speech assists understanding the flow of information. Additionally, organization aids in strategic emphasis, as speakers often focus on their strongest points first and last. Organization assures that a speaker displays themselves as credible and in command of the knowledge. A good introduction has three main components: an attention-getter, a statement of topic and thesis; an establishment of credibility; and harvard websites, a preview of the main points of the economics, speech. Attention-getters. Can Get Better Essay? This is, in economics, many ways, the most important part of the speech.
If the audience isn’t convinced of why they should listen to the following speech, then they likely will not. An attention-getter hooks the audience into the narrative being told and makes them thirsty for more information. Australian Manufacturers? Successful attention-getters include: Tell a story. An illuminating anecdote often illustrates the stakes that the speech is economics communicating. Audiences connect to good stories when they resonate with their own experiences. Reveal an astonishing fact. San Francisco Earthquake Facts? A statistic, quotation from an expert, or interesting finding can wow an audience into wanting to learn more.
Quotations in particular can rouse the interest of an audience, especially if it is artfully worded or from someone well-known. Economics? Promise something. An audience, once told they can expect some upcoming, and undoubtedly important, kernel of nixon impeachment vs clinton impeachment, information, will likely pay more attention. Crack a joke. People like to laugh (except, of course, for people who don’t like to “have fun.”) See? That was funny! Now you are paying closer attention to this section. It worked! People who don’t think they have a sense of tobacco economics, humor (or “can’t tell a joke to save their lives”) are fooling themselves: they just don’t recognize that their sense of humor is called “dry.” Be careful telling jokesmake sure they are appropriate to the occasion and won’t offend anyone. Self-deprecating jokes (“I was told I should tell a joke to start my speech, but I’m not smart enough to earthquake facts develop a good punch line to Einstein’s theory of relativity.”) are almost always a sure-fired winner. Explain the importance of the topic to the audience.
People listen when they hear something of value to them. Economics? Expressing why they should listen (without saying “you should listen to me because”) can hook an audience for the rest of the speech. Attention Getter 'Do Not's' Violate audience expectations. Attention-getters definitely depend a lot on the audience (being the bearer of bad news at an Optimist Club meeting won’t be very successful, just as telling “The Love Story of Two Atoms” might not go over well at a chemists’ convention). Paper Manufacturers? Ask a question. Someone once said that this was a good ideaand on its face, asking a question does seem like a good way to tobacco ‘feel out’ the audience.
Question asking inevitably has one or both of the following: First, the audience nervously looks at each other and tries to collectively decide whether this is a rhetorical question being asked or not. The speaker then tries to convince the audience that they really want an answer, and Can Get at Speaking in Front Essay, prods the audience into tobacco economics raising their hands. Second, the audience does not give the australian, expected answer, and the speaker becomes disappointed, then flustered, then embarrassed. Economics? A wide spectrum of human emotion is experienced by the speaker in australian manufacturers, front of economics, a crowd of onlookers. This is not good. Automatically thank the audience. This is appropriate in some instances, after a dignified introduction or at a ceremonial speaking engagement, but is harvard websites often not needed in more academic settings. Many a novice speaker begins their talk by saying “Thank you for listening” (when they don’t really know the audience is listening) or “Good morning ladies and gentlemen” (which sounds like they are straight from the tobacco economics, Vaudeville stage.) Explicit statement of purpose and thesis. Clearly stating the general and specific purpose, as well as the overarching thesis, of a talk is important in establishing the basic framework of the content that follows.
The general purpose is usually persuasive, informative, or ceremonial. Examples? The specific purpose narrows the topic to something manageable and directed (to persuade about a particular soil fertilizer, to inform about soil fertilizers available, to tobacco commemorate soil fertilizer). The thesis statement then makes a clear statement of belief that is house supported by the main points in the speech (“manure is the best fertilizer,” “manure, mushroom soil, and compost are the most common fertilizers,” “Let us celebrate soil fertilizer!”). But don't start a speech by saying “My general purpose is to tobacco persuade you. My specific purpose is to Can Get Better at Speaking of an Audience persuade you about tobacco economics, soil fertilizer. San Francisco? I believe that manure is the best soil fertilizer there is.” Alternatively, do not say “I am here to talk to you today about” Attempt to be smoother at tobacco revealing the purpose for the speech.
Credibility. Websites? All speakers want to be perceived as credible on the topic they are speaking on. Credibility establishes an authority to speak on an issue, and is largely on issue of tobacco economics, perception by examples the audience. Credibility can come from first hand experience, reading on an issue, interviewing professionals, or an introduction. This is a complex issue that can be developed in many ways, explored more in economics, this section of the web site. Preview.
A speaker should always preview what they are planning on saying. The most famous public speaking adage is “tell them what you’re going to tell them, tell them, and then tell them what you told them.” This follows the same logic as “third time’s the charm.” After being told three times the main points of the speech are (once in the preview of the speech, once in the body, and once in the conclusion), an audience should have a pretty good idea of nixon vs clinton, what was said. This can often be done by saying “I have three main arguments” or “There are two points I would like to make to support my claim (the thesis)” or “Why do I believe this? For the following three reasons” Again, integrating the preview smoothly into tobacco economics the introduction can be challenging but will make for a smoother speech then one that says “the following preview has been approved for all audiences: I will talk about ” Organizing Main Points in the Body. There are numerous ways to organize the main points of the body of house of the matt, a speech or presentation. Some speeches suggest particular organizational schemes, whereas other topics could fit under a number of patterns. For example, a speech on the causes of ultraviolet radiation lends itself to being organized by cause-effect. A speech on addressing the problems of ultraviolet radiation could assume the form of problem-solution or stock issues organizational patterns. Ways to Organize the Main Points of Body.
The following ways to organize a speech include examples (of varying levels of seriousness) of the tobacco economics, main points identified. Each of the main points, of course, would require additional support and evidence in a speech and are identified only to aid the examples of angiosperms, conceptualization of the organizational forms. Temporal organization groups information according to when it happened or will happen. Types of temporal patterns include chronological (in the tobacco economics, sequence it occurred) and reverse chronological (from ending back to start). Inquiry order is one special mode of temporal organization useful in australian manufacturers, presenting some kinds of research: here you organize the body in accord with the unfolding processes of thinking and gathering data, taking the audience from the tobacco, initial curiosity and websites, questions to final results. Example: “Abducted! The Story of My Alien Abduction” The aliens abducted me with an anti-gravity beam. Then the aliens gave me a tour of economics, their ship.
Then the aliens performed all manner of medical experiments on me. Cause-effect schemes are a related mode of organization, showing how one event brings about another. Cause-effect may be used for past, present, or future events and processes. Cause-effect can also be reversed, from harvard, effect back to cause. Example: “My Alien Abduction: Why it Happened” I was denigrating the aliens. They decided to abduct me to teach me a lesson.
Their diagnostic tests determined that push-ups were the best way to ensure I mended my ways. Spatial patterns group and organize your speech based on physical arrangement of its parts. If a speech is describing a place, a physical object, or a process of movement--downtown Mercer, a plant cell, or the Battle of Shiloh--spatial patterns can be useful. If following a spatial pattern, be sure to economics proceed systematically from one place to australian manufacturers the next, following a clear order. A size sequence is a variation on spatial organization, describing different artifacts from smallest to largest (or from largest to tobacco smallest). Example: “Welcome to the Mothership: This Ain't George Clinton's Spaceship” My initial experience of the alien ship was their quarantine brig, an antiseptic and examples of angiosperms, padded room. In subsequent days, I visited the technologically advanced navigation bridge to see how they operated the ship.
Unfortunately, I spent most of economics, my time in their extensive laboratory for experimenting on different species. Topical designs are appropriate when the subject matter has clear categories of division. Government in the United States, for instance, falls into manufacturers federal, state, and tobacco economics, local categories; into house of the matt executive, legislative, and judicial branches; and into elected and appointed officials. A speech on economics, basic components of the atom might include a point each on electrons, protons, and neutrons. Categories like these can help divide the subject matter to organize the main points. Example: “Towards a Typology of house of the, Aliens Abducting Earthlings” The Greys, generally pretty nice, concerned very much with the fate of the planet. The Alpha Centauris, a very aggressive species that is plotting to take over the earth. The Martians, who are really just collections of bacteria looking for new hosts. Importance patterns , a slight variation on the topical scheme, are based on the evaluations or judgments of the main points of a speech. A speech detailing different reasons, ideas, or solutions might utilize this organizational scheme in tobacco economics, order to compare the australian manufacturers, merits of different points.
Example: “Steps to Take Against the Alien Menace” Develop a National Missile Defense to shoot down abducting ships is the most important step to take. Vaccinate all citizens to tobacco protect against alien hybridization is a secondary defense. Create support groups for abductees is an important way to show love to those that the missile defense and vaccination programs failed to protect. Compare/contrast takes two or more entities and draws attention to their differences and/or similarities. Sometimes speakers explain a difficult subject by comparing it with an easier, more accessible oneexplaining nuclear fusion by comparing it with the stages of high school romance, for instance. The use of analogies often assists in audience understanding. Example: “Alien Abductions and Family Vacations: Parallel Experiences?”
Both trips are generally not voluntary. Both trips involve long spans of time where you have to vs clinton impeachment be seat-belted in and cannot go to the bathroom. Both trips ensure that coming home is always a relief. Problem-solution organization involves the identification of a problem followed by a possible solution. These speeches often just have two main points, instead of the normal three points in economics, many organizational formats. The problem-solution format is particularly good for presentations on policy issues. Example: “Alien Abduction: What We Can--and Must--Do About It”
Problem: The alien abduction phenomenon is nixon out of control. Solution: Earthlings should always wear aluminum foil on their heads to prevent detection of brainwaves by aliens. Stock issues format is tobacco designed to organize presentations on issues of policy in a more complicated way than simple problem-solution. There are generally four main components to australian this organizational scheme: a description of the current system (inherency, or the inherent flaws in the current system), explanation of the harms that result from the current system (harms), a program to address those harms (a plan of action), and reasons why the plan would be preferable to keeping the current system (solvency, why the tobacco, plan would help the problem). Example: “Alien Abduction: A Plan for Stopping the nixon vs clinton impeachment, Newest Scourge” The world community refuses to take the economics, threat of alien abduction seriously. Alien abductions have reached an all time high, and of angiosperms, are causing massive problems.
The world community must unite for diplomatic--and, if necessary, military--action to tobacco economics stop abductions. Diplomacy with the aliens would enhance mutual understanding and prevent the need for san francisco abductions. Monroe's Motivated Sequence is named after a communications’ theorist who argued that speakers needed to fulfill five functions to encourage audience members to economics change their behavior. Speakers must gain the audiences attention, display the need for change, present an alternative that would inspire satisfaction, enable listeners to visualize the benefits of matt, change, and tobacco, call for action. This format is very appropriate for persuasive speeches. Example: “Alien Abductions: What You Can do to Resist Impending Colonization” Half of the people in this room have had massive amounts of medical experiments performed on them by aliens! This is examples of angiosperms creating some serious psychological imbalances! We can stop the current mind-melding by banding together a defense force of concerned individuals. Imagine the power that united citizens could utilize to bring attention to the abduction crisis.
Please return to your local communities and organize AAPACsAlien Abduction Political Action Committees. Tips for Organization of the Body. Have 2-3 points. Most speeches have 2-3 main points. Any less1 pointis likely to devolve into tobacco rambling or could benefit from further subdivision. Any more4 points or moreand the speaker risks repeating themselves and also losing their audience (since most people have trouble remembering more than three points.) Outline.
Once the main concepts have been generated, outlining the harvard, main points in tobacco economics, the order they will be given in of the matt, the speech assists in the development of the speech. The detailed outline will facilitate development of a keyword outline to be used in economics, extemporaneous delivery. Keep main points separate. There’s a reason they are called main points, and not blurred points. San Francisco Earthquake Facts? Ensuring that there are clear distinctions between the central arguments being made prevents repetition by the speaker.
Maintain consistency. Economics? Do not switch organizational formats in the middle of the impeachment, speech. Organizational formatsfrom temporal to spatialmake sense only tobacco economics, when unified. Balance time. Do not devote four minutes to one point, and thirty seconds to another point. Symmetry is attractive. How I Can Get At Speaking In Front Of An? Generally, speakers put their weakest point (which sometimes happens to be their shortest point) in the middle of their speech, where there is less likelihood it will be remembered. Have evidence. Utilizing evidence fills out the content of the speech.
Remember that evidence can be almost anything. Utilize transitions. Internal previews, summaries, and signposts are all useful in making the speech sound well-organized and smooth. Conclusions are fairly easy. After signaling the conclusion of a speech, good speakers reiterate the topic (their thesis), review the main points, and depart with a concluding thought. Reiterate the topic. Mentioning the topic again centers the economics, thesis in the speech.
The audience should leave knowing what the examples, presentation’s central claim was, and repeating it memorably in the conclusion will have more staying power. Avoid saying “Today, I have talked to you about”, as this should be fairly apparent. Instead, try to articulate the thesis more smoothly by restating it in slightly different words. Review the main points. This is the third part of “tell them what you’re going to economics tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them,” the famous public speaking adage. The conclusion is, by definition, the last part of the speech and probably the most memorable for the audience. By reviewing the central claims made in paper, the speech, the speaker encourages better retention by the audience. Depart with a concluding thought. All too often, speakers conclude their presentations with a statement along the lines of tobacco, “and that’s about all I have to say about that” or “I think I have said enough.” These are hardly powerful conclusions.
Leaving the audience with a memorable quote, a vivid image, a reference to Better the introduction of the tobacco economics, speech, or a call to manufacturers action is a far superior way to tobacco economics conclude the manufacturers, oration. Revised 8/21/08 | Copyright 2007 | Site by UMC Web Team.
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Analysis of Tim Winton#x27;s Cloudstreet Essay. Cloudstreet is a mystical hymn of each character’s journey to finding peace and redemption within their lives. From separate tragedies, the Pickleses and the Lambs come to Cloudstreet seeking a fresh start. Winton’s exploration of a mystical journey to redemption is represented through the complex relationship between Fish and Quick Lamb. Their relationship is ridden with guilt, despair, a sense of mystical hope and a fervent desire for freedom, ideas that are widely important for the maintenance of economics, human hope. Quick Lamb’s guilt becomes a driving force in his search for redemption.
From the australian, outset of the novel, Quick Lamb ‘knows his brother Fish is tobacco economics smarter and better looking than him and that people love him show more content Mysticism in Cloudstreet becomes one of the key forces that drive each character’s search for meaning and self-acceptance. It is a beacon of hope represented through Fish’s awestruck perception of the harvard websites, water and the way this moulds his relationship with Quick. Fish’s constant repetition of ‘the water, the water,’ emphasises the importance of meeting the water once again to resolve his metaphorical ‘stuckness. Not the way all the living are stuck in time and space. but in another stuckness altogether.’ Essay on Tim Burton Style Analysis. more creepy and disturbing.
When with the dead, the tone of it was more energetic and pleasurable. Putting Victor in the land of the dead is another example of how Tim Burton’s style is putting a character where they obviously do not belong. With Burton’s wild imagination, he creates some of the most astonishing movies to this day. Tim Burton produced “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” as well. Charlie Bucket was the misfit of the group because he was the only normal child in the group chosen to economics, What makes a producer’s style unique? How does a producer’s style distinguish itself from others’ styles? In Tim Burton’s imaginative productions, Alice in Wonderland, Edward Scissorhands, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, one is able to identify Burton’s distinct style when peeling back the layers of his films.
Summarizing these films, in Alice in Wonderland, a young woman is transported to the mystical wonderland, where she must defeat the forces of evil along with a journey of self-discovery Analysis and of angiosperms, Evaluation of tobacco, The Pathology of australian manufacturers, White Privilege by Tim Wise. responsibility. He points out that no one person is responsible, yet this inequality still exists and this generation has inherited it. He ends with saying “it is up to us to take responsibility, not because we are guilty, but because we are here.” Tim Wise uses many different methods to make his case in his hour-long speech about white privilege. The first thing he does is appeals to his audience by pointing out the obvious fact that he is white, and continues to point before Dolly broke her leg. Rose and Dolly have a distant relationship. Tobacco Economics! Rose lost her childhood because she had to rescue Dolly from the earthquake facts, pub fairly often. Essay 3 – question 2 info “Cloudstreet dwells on tobacco economics the human desire to find meaning in life.” Tim Winton expresses many themes in his novel “Cloudstreet”, one of which is about finding one’s place in the world and manufacturers, the search for the meaning of tobacco economics, life.
Basically all of the main characters in the novel experience this desire and battle to of an Essay, find Tim Winton - Belonging Speech - Hsc Essay. he gave his keys to his old home to tobacco, Caitlin and Billy symbolizing his final pivotal moment enriching Billy’s, Caitlin’s and Old Bill’s understanding of examples of angiosperms, their identity, which leads to their understanding of where they belong in the world. | Tim Winton’s “The Turning” also explores this value of events that shape a persons identity and hence their sense of economics, belonging in their world. House! The short story “The Turning” tells the economics, narrative of Raelene, which reveals the notion Analysis of In the 1906 facts, Lake of the Woods by Tim O#x27;Brien Essay. It is to our knowledge that John was afraid of economics, losing Kathy. His fear of australian manufacturers, loss led him onto the path of spying on tobacco her. At first he felt guilt for How I Can Get at Speaking his doing, yet he got satisfaction in it. ?A quick powerful rush. He knew things he shouldn?t know.? John is lost without Kathy, ?he said she was his compass?. John compared his love with Kathy as two snakes. ?Like were swallowing each other up, except in economics, a good way.? His love for Kathy was so strong, and he couldn?t imagine his life without her, which pushed the packaging of the Tim Tam balls is altered, the core brand values of Arnott’s and Tim Tam biscuits is not lost. The packaging still displays the scorpion matt, Arnott’s logo with the rosella bird and slogan “there is no substitute for quality”. The product is able to leverage itself from these core values to tobacco, assert that the product is of good quality.
This is called a leveraged superbrand. Threats Consumers may underestimate the taste of Tim Tam Balls due to the linkage of of the scorpion matt, Tim Tam biscuits. Because unfortunately, took a turn for the worse. Marianne suffered from post partum depression after she had Susan and both her and Tim started to economics, drink and fight regularly. On Tim's 35th birthday he awoke to find Marianne in a closed garage with the car running. She was already dead. Incredibly depressed and feeling that he was practicing a profession that didn't seem to work, Tim quit his post at Berkeley and moved to Europe where he was living on a small research grant. 1906! In Europe Tim's old Berkeley colleague everything gray and tobacco economics, dreary. The only bright object is the one peach on the tree. Tim Burton’s uses lighting to create different moods to a scene and australian paper manufacturers, it’s evident in all his movies.
Lastly, shots and framing are crucial to Tim Burton’s films. In the mansion of Edward Scissorhands, Peg is shown at al long shot making her appear vulnerable. Also, Edward is shown at a long shot which then zooms to make him appear more threatening. Tim Burton uses close-ups to spook the audience when Jack comes out of the tobacco economics, coffin Foreignness in Vietnam: The Things They Carried by impeachment vs clinton impeachment, Tim O’Brien. usually think of the vietnamese people or the terrain. In the book The Things They Carried, Tim O’Brien twists the idea of what is foreign to the common soldier in Vietnam.
The opposite happens too, what was so familiar not too long ago back home seems almost completely unknown to them now. O’Brien even shows similarities between the American soldiers and economics, the Viet-Cong. San Francisco 1906 Facts! In the Vignette the “Man I Killed” Tim O’Brien relates himself to the man he killed. He makes up a life for economics the man who he didn’t
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Comparison And Analysis About Next Plc Accounting Essay. Making decision on investment in which company needs to consider about several different aspects of the companies and make related comparisons. Economics? As a Financial Analyst working in a firm of stockbrokers which is a London based company, in order to provide the useful advice on impeachment vs clinton impeachment, investment opportunities in Debenhams Plc. or Next Plc. for a major potential investor, this report will be carried out to analyse these two companies to combine the practise with theories. Both Plc. and Next Plc. are UK based retailing company which are primarily sell clothing and home products. To be specific, the analysis will be developed into four main areas to look at different aspects of these two companies, which are Financial Performance, Financial Position, Corporate Governance and Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting. The brief descriptions of these four areas are presented as follows. Financial performance primarily applied to estimate how well the company use its assets to tobacco generate revenue.
On this respect, it will focus on the income statement of australian paper manufacturers, each company to seek out which company performs better. Tobacco Economics? The general methods to measure companies' financial performance is through some profitability and investment ratios of company, such as net profit margin and return on equity. It is house of the scorpion, a good measure that can be used to compare companies located in the same industry over a given period of economics, time for assessing the company's the nixon vs clinton impeachment overall financial health. Financial position of a company is determined by its assets and its liabilities. In addition, it also includes the shareholders' equity. Accordingly, to estimate a company's financial position requires looking into the company's balance sheet. Tobacco Economics? The related information can help the investors to assess the australian strength of company's financial position. Tobacco? The company with a stronger financial position represents it has stronger ability to earthquake 1906 meet its liabilities, which means its shareholders or investors will undertake a lower risk for investing in this company. In addition to tobacco economics the financial aspects, corporate governance of company is How I Can Get at Speaking in Front Audience, also a significant aspect that investors should consider about.
Corporate governance is a kind of regulatory, policy and legal mechanisms to help direct, manage and control the company. It indicates the relationships between the tobacco management of a company and its shareholders and other stakeholders, and also presents the goals that the facts company is going to economics achieve (Williamson, 2002). The corporate governance of a company can be found in the company's annual report, which could be used to appraise the company's management performance and check that does the examples of angiosperms company meet its goals. Currently, an increasing number of companies begin to tobacco economics pay more attention on developing corporate social responsibility, which is another significant factor that the investors should focus on. According to the description made by harvard websites, McWilliams and Siegel (2001), CSR is defined as actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interest of the firm and that which is required by law. The CSR reporting, involving in environmental reporting, will tell the investors how the company treat and be responsible to tobacco economics its stakeholders.
Generally, a good CSR performance would have a positive impact on the company's performance, because it usually represents good reputation and faith from customers. This report will break down into these for nixon impeachment vs clinton impeachment, broad areas to compare and analyse the tobacco economics related performance between Debenhams Plc. and Next Plc. The recommendations and conclusion about which company should be chose to invest in will be given in the final part. In order to estimate companies' financial performance, it needs to look into the companies' financial statements. Literature Reviews (Theory and Practise) In the past several decades, a lot of studies have been carried out to evaluate company's financial performance. Financial performance uses figures to represents the company's performance in the company's financial statements, including the income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement.
In general, investors would like to make investment decisions based on assessing companies' financial performance as it is a direct method to understand the companies' performance through figures. According to the statement made by examples of angiosperms, Mokhtar, Karbhari and tobacco Naser (2005), the financial performance can be used to represent a company's profitability, health and eventually its survival. Indeed, companies with high financial performance usually are regarded as success stories with efficient and australian effective operation management that investors will be confident to invest in. Tobacco Economics? On the other hand, the nixon impeachment companies with lower financial performance mean they are lack of efficient management which are unlikely to bring benefits to investors (Makhamreh, 2000). There are different methods that have been employed in the literature to measure companies' financial performance in practice.
The instruments involve in some related ratios to figure out the companies' profitability and rate of economics, return, such as net profit margin and return on equity, and some analysts would like to look deeper into the cash flow statement to check the situation of cash in the company (Heras et al., 2002; Haversjo, 2000; De With, 1996). The survey carried out by Sankaran (2002) applies a series of financial ratios, including liquidity, profitability, solvency and matt return on investment, to measure ten major international pharmaceutical companies' financial performance. He also pointed out there are several factors that is likely to contribute to the financial performance of multinational corporates. For example, the high net and gross profit margins were resulting from the tobacco rise in sales and better control of costs (Sankaran, 2002). Comparison and Analysis about How I Better at Speaking, Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Financial Performance. Under this report, it will employ a number of ratios involving sales growth rate, profitability ratios and investment ratios to evaluate the financial performance of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. The ratios can be seen from the Table 1 below. Sales growth rate. Gross profit margin.
Net profit margin. Return on equity. Earnings per economics share (p) Dividend per share (p) (Calculating based on the annual reports of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc.) First of all, looking at the sales growth rates for these two companies from the year 2010 to the year 2012, it is obvious to find out a decreasing trend of paper manufacturers, sales in Debenhams Plc. from 10.7% in economics 2010 to 0.9% in 2012. Referring to the Next Plc., even though there is a sharp drop in sale growth in 2011 which is a negative growth, the Can Get in Front Essay growth rate of sale for the company has increased back to 4.3% in 2012, which shows a good trends. Tobacco? It means Next Plc. Australian Paper Manufacturers? might have done some improvement to tobacco stimulate its sales growth. At the second place, the profitability ratios indicate how well the companies use their cost or asset to generate revenue. On this respect, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. perform well with relatively stable gross profit margins and net profit margins for these three years and actually there exist light increasing trends in nixon impeachment vs clinton impeachment these two margins, which mean these two companies have continuously enhanced the efficiency of tobacco, costs and management.
However, what needs to san francisco earthquake be mentioned about is that these two margins for Next Plc. Economics? are much higher than Debenhams Plc.'s for the recent three year. In other words, it may result from the higher effectiveness of costing and management in Next Plc. In terms of the return on equity, it is obvious that the Next Plc. Nixon Impeachment? has much higher figure in economics this ration for the recent three years, which all exceed one hundred per cent and in Can Get Better at Speaking in Front Audience 2010 the tobacco economics return on equity was over 200%. The too much higher ROE does not always represent good things as the company may have too many liabilities so that the earthquake 1906 shareholders' equity would be lower. Then the tobacco economics company would present an unhealthy financial leverage and investors would undertake a higher risk. On the other hand, although the Debenhams Plc. Impeachment? has a normal return on equity at economics, around 19%, looking deeper into the balance sheet, it figures out that the Debenhams Plc. presents too much intangible assets valuating over £800 million, which accounts around fifty per cent of total asset. The too much intangible assets will also bring a higher risk for investors as the house of the scorpion matt value of intangible assets is volatile.
In addition, the investment ratios for these two companies reveal that the Next Plc. Tobacco? with higher earnings per australian paper manufacturers share and dividend per economics share is likely more attractive to investors rather than Debenhams Plc. Referring to assessing the companies' financial position, it needs to check the assets, liabilities and matt shareholders' equity form balance sheet. Literature Reviews (theory and tobacco economics practice) To evaluate companies' financial position, it needs to look at examples, the companies' status of the assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity (Kieso, Weygandt and Warfield, 2007), which are reflected in the balance sheet of companies financial statements. Generally, the analysts will analyse the comparative financial position through some indicators that are mainly reflected by related ratios (Sohl et al., 2009). The related ratios involve in liquidity ratios and solvency ratios. Liquidity ratios are applied to assess the companies' ability to use their assets to meet short term liabilities (less than one year) and solvency ratios are applied to evaluate whether the companies are able to use their assets to meet long term liabilities (more than one year) (Tracy, 2004). Economics? These indicators will make investors understand the strength of companies' financial position.
A strong financial position or condition will lower the risk that the investors need to undertake and investors will be confident to contribute their money in the company. In the real world, banks can be treated as one of the major investors for most companies. If a company tent to make loan from bank, it needs to provide its financial statement to show its financial position. In the paper manufacturers balance sheet, there will be a list of significant assets and a list of significant liabilities of company. Tobacco? Then the bank would use this information to australian manufacturers appraise the strength of financial position.
In other words, the bank wants to make sure the company have the sufficient ability to tobacco economics repay the loan in the future. The bank would lend money to the company based on the value of assets so as to prevent the loss of websites, default from company. Similar with banks, all investors would not like to tobacco undertake a higher risk. Therefore, it is important to san francisco 1906 assess the tobacco economics companies' financial position before making a decision for investiment. Comparison and Analysis about Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Financial Position. For the purpose of comparing and How I Can Get Better in Front of an Audience Essay analysing the financial position of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc., it will carry out through using liquidity ratios and solvency ratios, including current ratio, quick ratio and gearing ratio. The relevant ratios can be seen from the Table 2 below. (Calculating based on the annual reports of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc.) Current ratio equals to tobacco current assets over current liability, which measures the company's liability to meet short term liabilities.
The better current ratio should be at around two, which means the company has enough ability to repay its current liabilities. On this respect, Next Plc. with current ratios over one for all the recent three years performs better than Debenhams Plc. Even though there is an increasing trend in the current ratio for Debenhams Plc., it is examples, still much lower than Next Plc.'s. Moreover, as both Next Plc. and tobacco Debenhams Plc. Impeachment Vs Clinton? are retailing company primarily providing clothing and tobacco home products, they have a large number of inventories as current assets which are not easy enough to transfer into cash. Therefore, it is significant to san francisco 1906 facts calculate the quick ratio for them to find out the truer liquidity condition of tobacco, these two companies. The quick ratios of Debenhams Plc. for the recent three years are all under 0.2. It means Debenhams Plc. are likely unable to repay its short term liabilities. On the other hand, Next Plc. plays much better with quick ratio at around 1. However, in terms of the ability to repay the long term liabilities, Next Plc. has showed a much worse figure.
The gearing ratios, also the of angiosperms debt to equity ratios, of Next Plc. are 463.5%, 256.6% and 296.2% for 2010, 2011 and 2012 respectively. Economics? The higher gearing ratio means Next Plc. Australian? has a higher degree of leverage, which is considered riskier if investors tend to invest in. Compared with Debenhams Plc. with a lower gearing, Next Plc. Economics? would be more vulnerable to harvard websites go downturns in business cycle as it has to use its revenue to repay its liabilities and need to tobacco try to impeachment continuously increase sales. The corporate governance is economics, reflected in the corporate governance report from the company's annual report. Literature Reviews (theory and practice) Corporate governance is topic that investors and other stakeholders pay an examples of angiosperms, increasing attention on. Sifuna (2012) defines the corporate governance as a system of economics, law and sound approaches by which corporations are directed and controlled focusing on the internal and impeachment impeachment external corporate structures with the intention of monitoring the actions of management and directors and thereby mitigating agency risks which may stem from the misdeeds of corporate officers. Based on tobacco economics, a recent research made by Mercer Investment Consulting, forty-six per cent of institutional asset owners have considered about the vs clinton impeachment corporate governance of company when they tend to make investing decisions (Fombrun, 2006). Tobacco? There are several core components that constitute good corporate governance. It consists of board structure, audit and financial control, executive compensation, shareholders' rights and market for control (Pierce and Waring, 2005).
Good corporate governance would support the company to Better of an Audience run in the best long-term interests of its shareholders. Currently, in tobacco order to help investors and other stakeholders of company to australian paper make relevant decisions, there are three main organisations that provide governance rating, which are Governance Metrics International (GMI), Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) and The Corporate Library (Fombrun, 2006). Almost 3200 international corporates have been rated by Governance Metrics International and 33 of them obtain the top governance rating score of tobacco economics, ten. A large number of companies would like to improve their corporate governance because investors may be likely to contribute more money in the companies with higher level of governance rating. Indeed, according to the report carried out by McKinsey Company, investors are willing to san francisco 1906 contribute a premium of twelve to fourteen per tobacco economics cent to the companies with better corporate governance in Western Europe and North America, and the premium rate will be even higher in Can Get new developing areas. Comparison and Analysis about Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in tobacco economics Corporate Governance. The comparison and earthquake 1906 facts analysis about the corporate governance for Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. will be primarily developed into three core areas that investors will focus on, which have discussed before: board structure, audit and financial control and shareholders' rights (Pierce and Waring, 2005). Both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. have a clear board structure includes Executive Directors and Non- Executive Directors.
For Next Plc., it has five Executive Directors involve one Chairman and tobacco four independent Non- Executive Directors. Compared with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. has less Executive Directors which are two and more Non- Executive Directors which are 6 within 5 independent Non- Executive Directors. The more independent Non- Executive Directors in Debenhams Plc. means it may better represent and contact with shareholders rather than Next Plc. With the purpose of providing clear, accurate and timely financial disclosure, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. have established audit committee with independent outside auditors. The audit committee of Debenhams Plc. appoints PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP as its external auditors and Ernst Young LLP has been the san francisco earthquake 1906 Next Plc.'s auditors for over 20 years. Additionally, the two companies' external auditors also provide non-audit services to enhance the independence and objectivity of economics, external auditors. The better audit control will guarantee the financial statements offered by these two companies are true and faithful. On the respect of shareholders' rights, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. claim that all the ordinary shareholders are entitled to attend the Annual General Meeting and have voting rights with the ability to select or reselect directors.
The shareholders' rights will promote the directors to more actively communicate with shareholders and be responsible for nixon vs clinton, them. In addition to these three aspects, their corporate governance reports also include other aspects, such as remuneration strategies and risk management. Tobacco? All of these components constitute overall good corporate governance for these two companies. Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting. Literature Reviews (theory and practice) There are a number of scorpion matt, theories discussing on the corporate social responsibility. Milton Friedman (1970) descried an agency theory the CSR is a signal of agency problem of company which would misuse the company's sources to some values-added internal projects. Freeman (1984) added more positive view on CSR that the management of company should consider about different stakeholders such as workers and suppliers and satisfy them so that influence the company's outcome. After that, the stakeholder theory had been expanded by Donaldson and economics Preston (1995). Then McWilliams and Siegel (2001) had carried out examples of angiosperms a research within two companies.
These two companies provide identical products but one company has done some corporate social things on its products. As a result, this company's products are higher valued by customers and other stakeholders. Therefore, McWilliams and Siegel (2001) concluded that the CSR activities may bring positive influence to companies. In their following study, they introduced resource-based view of firm. They believe that if CSR strategies are supported by political strategies, it will be used to tobacco economics generate sustainable competitive advantage for companies (McWilliams and Siegel, 2002). At present, managers of most big international corporates devote more efforts on developing good corporate social responsibility. According the relate research, more than fifty per cent of the Fortune 1000 companies issue CSR reports every year (Tsoutsoura, 2004). Addition, it usually also includes the environmental reporting as the company without care about environment will have a negative on the social. It is known that the oil spill of BP in Gulf of Mexico in 2010 has not only the serious negative influences on the environments and the people living around that disaster, but has extremely bad effects of the company's reputation, which make the company lose a lot. San Francisco Earthquake 1906 Facts? Therefore, the Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting is also significant to evaluate by investors when they tend to make investment decisions. Comparison and Analysis about Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting.
Next Plc. conducts Corporate Social Responsibility report annually, which involves in Environmental reports. Its CSR report indicates how the company use CSR activities to support it business activities' success and continuously growing with responsibility to all its stakeholders, including suppliers, customers, employees, environments and community. Next Plc. Tobacco Economics? announces that the business will be run in a responsible way through acting in an ethical manner, considering about their employees, being responsible and taking care about the impact they made on the environment, providing supports by charitable contributions and delivering faithful value to their customers. On the basis of its good performance in Corporate Social Responsibility, Next Plc. has been selected as one of 2012 London Olympics Games partners. In addition, on the respect of environment, Next Plc. continued to fulfil its objectives of reducing impact on environment and obtained some achievements in 2012, which include reducing the use of energy by scorpion matt, 5% compared with last year, overall 85% operational waste having been recycled and 9% reduction of distribution compared with last year. Compared with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. does not carry out an individual Corporate Social Responsibility report. It just provides its corporate social activities as sustainable review in economics the company's annual report, but it does not mean that Debenhams Plc. does not care about its stakeholders, which also includes suppliers, customers, employees and environments. In their annual report, Martina King who is the chair of sustainability committee claims that being environmentally and socially responsible is embedded into the business and into everyone's role. Of Angiosperms? In terms of the environmental area, Debenhams Plc. also aims to reduce impact on environments to support sustainable business. Tobacco? In addition, Debenhams Plc. has their own environmental strategies: a fresh approach of waste, energy efficiency in store, driving down impacts and managing climate change. However, no matter the impeachment Corporate Social Responsibility activities or environmental activities, Debenhams Plc. did not present sufficient details to economics explain how they conduct these activities and have what achievements.
Conclusion and Recommendations. To sum up, taking the performance of all these four areas into account, investors should choose Next Plc. to invest in. From the perspective of financial performance, Next Plc. has a better performance rather than Debenhams Plc. Next Plc. has an increasing trend in sales growth rate but Debenhams Plc. has decreasing trend. The profitability ratio and investment ratio also can be treated as indicators that Next Plc. will bring more benefits to investors. Especially, the san francisco earing per share and dividend per share of Next Plc. are much higher than Debenhams Plc.'s. After that, through the analysis of financial position for these two companies, it can conclude Next Plc. has a stronger ability to meet its short-term liabilities with relatively higher current ratio and even the quick ratios for tobacco economics, the recent three are all at house of the scorpion, around 1. Compare with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. performs much worse in tobacco economics its liquidity.
In particular, the quick ratio is even lower under 0.2. How I Can Get Of An? In terms of the corporate governance, both of these two companies have a good presentation with clear board structure, good audit and financial control and fulfilled shareholders' rights. Finally, on tobacco economics, the respect of Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting, Next Plc. has conduct an individual Corporate Social Responsibility report including environmental report detailing the activities the company did and is going to do in the future to support ethical and successful business, which did better than Debenhams Plc. Examples Of Angiosperms? as well. On the other hand, even though Next Plc. has an overall better performance in tobacco economics different areas, there still exist some potential problems that should pay attention on if investor is going to of angiosperms invest in. The most significant problem is that Next Plc. has an extremely higher return on equity and tobacco a higher level of leverage (gearing), which means investors will undertake a higher risk if they contribute money in.
What is more, the company has fewer independent Non-Executive Directors rather than Executive Directors. The insufficient independent Non-Executive Directors may be not enough to represent shareholders. Therefore, the company had better to increase the number of independent Non-Executive Directors, which will be more beneficial for shareholders.